Suppression of Inflammation and Fibrosis Using Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitors Enhances Cardiac Stem Cell‐Based Therapy

Scientists tested the hypothesis that inhibition of the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) enzyme using sEH inhibitors to decrease inflammation and fibrosis in the host myocardium may increase the survival of the transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell derived‐cardiomyocytes in a murine postmyocardial infarction model.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
Sirish, P., Thai, P. N., Lee, J. H., Yang, J., Zhang, X.-D., Ren, L., Li, N., Timofeyev, V., Lee, K. S. S., Nader, C. E., Rowland, D. J., Yechikov, S., Ganaga, S., Young, N., Lieu, D. K., Yamoah, E. N., Hammock, B. D., & Chiamvimonvat, N. (n.d.). Suppression of inflammation and fibrosis using soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors enhances cardiac stem cell-based therapy. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0143 Cite
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Targeted Gene Correction of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells for the Treatment of Wiskott – Aldrich Syndrome

The authors showed that a CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing strategy allowed the precise correction of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome mutations in up to 60% of human hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, without impairing cell viability and differentiation potential.
[Nature Communications]
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PAF1 Regulates Stem Cell Features of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Independently of the PAF1 Complex, via Interactions with PHF5A and DDX3

Researchers investigated mechanisms by which PAF1 maintains cancer stem cells and contributes to development of pancreatic tumors.
[Gastroenterology]
Karmakar, S., Rauth, S., Nallasamy, P., Perumal, N., Nimmakalaya, R. K., Leon, F., Gupta, R., Barkeer, S., Venkata, R. C., Raman, V., Rachagani, S., Ponnusamy, M. P., & Batra, S. K. (2020). PAF1 Regulates Stem Cell Features of Pancreatic Cancer Cells, Independently of the PAF1 Complex, via Interactions with PHF5A and DDX3. Gastroenterology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2020.07.053 Cite
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Antagonists of the Serotonin Receptor 5A Target Human Breast Tumor Initiating Cells

Researchers found that selective antagonists of 5-HT5A reduced the frequency of tumorsphere initiating cells residing in breast tumor cell lines and those of patient-derived xenografts that they established.
[BMC Cancer]
Gwynne, W. D., Shakeel, M. S., Girgis-Gabardo, A., Kim, K. H., Ford, E., Dvorkin-Gheva, A., Aarts, C., Isaac, M., Al-awar, R., & Hassell, J. A. (2020). Antagonists of the serotonin receptor 5A target human breast tumor initiating cells. BMC Cancer, 20(1), 724. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12885-020-07193-6 Cite
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PKD1-Dependent Renal Cystogenesis in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Ureteric Bud/Collecting Duct Organoids

CRISPR-Cas9 technology deleted PKD1 in human induced pluripotent stem cell and the cells induced to differentiate along pathways leading to formation of either nephron progenitor or uteric bud organoids.
[Journal of the American Society of Nephrology]
Kuraoka, S., Tanigawa, S., Taguchi, A., Hotta, A., Nakazato, H., Osafune, K., Kobayashi, A., & Nishinakamura, R. (2020). PKD1-Dependent Renal Cystogenesis in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Ureteric Bud/Collecting Duct Organoids. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2020030378 Cite
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Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma

Researchers examined how regulation and function of gene products that provide the target epitopes for CD8+ T cell anti-tumor immunity influence therapeutic efficacy and resistance.
[Immunity]
Effern, M., Glodde, N., Braun, M., Liebing, J., Boll, H. N., Yong, M., Bawden, E., Hinze, D., Boorn-Konijnenberg, D. van den, Daoud, M., Aymans, P., Landsberg, J., Smyth, M. J., Flatz, L., Tüting, T., Bald, T., Gebhardt, T., & Hölzel, M. (2020). Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.07.007 Cite
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Adoptive T Cell Therapy Targeting Different Gene Products Reveals Diverse and Context-Dependent Immune Evasion in Melanoma

Targeting melanosomal proteins or oncogenic CDK4R24C by adoptive cell transfer of the same epitope-specific CD8+ T cells revealed diverse genetic and non-genetic immune escape mechanisms.
[Immunity]
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LncMat2B Regulated by Severe Hypoxia Induces Cisplatin Resistance by Increasing DNA Damage Repair and Tumor-Initiating Population in Breast Cancer Cells

Researchers evaluated the biological function of a new microenvironment-regulated long non-coding RNA, lncMat2B, in breast cancer. In multicellular tumor spheroids, the expression of lncMat2B presented an increase and a zonal heterogeneity, as it was expressed principally in quiescent cells of hypoxic regions of the multicellular tumor spheroids.
[Carcinogenesis]
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Ex Vivo Editing of Human Hematopoietic Stem Cells for Erythroid Expression of Therapeutic Proteins

Scientists describe an ex vivo editing approach to achieve efficient gene targeting in human hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells and robust expression of clinically relevant proteins by the erythroid lineage.
[Nature Communications]
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Insulin2Q104del (Kuma) Mutant Mice Develop Diabetes with Dominant Inheritance

Scientists generated a novel Kuma mutant mice with p.Q104del in the Insulin2 gene in a BRJ background that exhibited a severe immune deficiency.
[Scientific Reports]
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Essential Functions of Glycans in Human Epithelia Dissected by a CRISPR-Cas9-Engineered Human Organotypic Skin Model

Researchers used CRISPR-Cas9 gene targeting to generate a library of 3D organotypic skin tissues that selectively differed in their capacity to produce glycan structures on the main types of N- and O-linked glycoproteins and glycolipids. This tissue library revealed distinct changes in skin formation associated with a loss of features for all tested glycoconjugates.
[Developmental Cell]
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Disruption of the Tumor-Associated EMP3 Enhances Erythroid Proliferation and Causes the MAM-Negative Phenotype

Disruption of EMP3 by CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing in an immortalised human erythroid cell line abolished MAM expression.
[Nature Communications]
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