Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitors using Lung and Colonic Organoids

As SARS-CoV-2 primarily infects the respiratory tract, investigators developed a lung organoid model using human pluripotent stem cells, and generated complementary hPSC-derived colonic organoids to explore the response of colonic cells to SARS-CoV-2 infection.
[Nature]
Han, Y., Duan, X., Yang, L., Nilsson-Payant, B. E., Wang, P., Duan, F., Tang, X., Yaron, T. M., Zhang, T., Uhl, S., Bram, Y., Richardson, C., Zhu, J., Zhao, Z., Redmond, D., Houghton, S., Nguyen, D.-H. T., Xu, D., Wang, X., … Chen, S. (2020). Identification of SARS-CoV-2 Inhibitors using Lung and Colonic Organoids. Nature, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2901-9 Cite
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The SARS-CoV-2 Targets by the PscRNA Profiling of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin Proteases

Scientists incorporated the protein information to analyze the expression of ACE2, the SARS-CoV-2 receptor, together with co-factors, TMPRSS2 and Furin, at single cell level in situ, which they called protein-proofed single-cell RNA (pscRNA) profiling.
[iScience]
Zhou, L., Niu, Z., Jiang, X., Zhang, Z., Zheng, Y., Wang, Z., Zhu, Y., Gao, L., Huang, H., Wang, X., & Sun, Q. (2020). The SARS-CoV-2 targets by the pscRNA profiling of ACE2, TMPRSS2 and Furin proteases. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101744 Cite
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Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications

The authors verified the applicability of 3D organoids for in vitro investigation of intestinal biochemical processes related to transport and metabolism of nutrients and drugs.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
Zietek, T., Giesbertz, P., Ewers, M., Reichart, F., Weinmüller, M., Urbauer, E., Haller, D., Demir, I. E., Ceyhan, G. O., Kessler, H., & Rath, E. (2020). Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.577656 Cite
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Phenotypic Landscape of Intestinal Organoid Regeneration

By combining quantitative imaging with RNA sequencing, scientists showed the role of endogenous retinoic acid metabolism in initiating transcriptional programs that guide the cell-fate transitions of intestinal epithelium, and identified an inhibitor of the retinoid X receptor that improves intestinal regeneration in vivo.
[Nature]
Lukonin, I., Serra, D., Challet Meylan, L., Volkmann, K., Baaten, J., Zhao, R., Meeusen, S., Colman, K., Maurer, F., Stadler, M. B., Jenkins, J., & Liberali, P. (2020). Phenotypic landscape of intestinal organoid regeneration. Nature, 586(7828), 275–280. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2776-9 Cite
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Enteroendocrine Cells Couple Nutrient Sensing to Nutrient Absorption by Regulating Ion Transport

Researchers found that peptide YY was required in the small intestine to maintain normal electrophysiology in the presence of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide, a potent stimulator of ion secretion classically produced by enteric neurons.
[Nature Communications]
McCauley, H. A., Matthis, A. L., Enriquez, J. R., Nichol, J. T., Sanchez, J. G., Stone, W. J., Sundaram, N., Helmrath, M. A., Montrose, M. H., Aihara, E., & Wells, J. M. (2020). Enteroendocrine cells couple nutrient sensing to nutrient absorption by regulating ion transport. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4791. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18536-z Cite
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Ecdysone Steroid Hormone Remote Controls Intestinal Stem Cell Fate Decisions via the PPARγ-Homolog Eip75B in Drosophila

The PPARγ-homologue Ecdysone-induced-protein-75B (Eip75B) drove intestinal stem cell daughter cells towards absorptive enterocyte lineage ensuring epithelial growth.
[eLife]
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