Novel Therapeutic Targets for Cholestatic and Fatty Liver Disease

Cholestatic and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease share several key pathophysiological mechanisms which can be targeted by novel therapeutic concepts that are currently developed for both areas.
[Gut]
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KFP-1, a Novel Calcium-Binding Peptide Isolated from Kefir, Promotes Calcium Influx through TRPV6 Channels

The authors suggested that KFP-1, a novel calcium-binding peptide, bound extracellular calcium ions and entered Caco-2 and IEC-6 cells, and promoted calcium uptake through TRPV6 calcium channels.
[Molecular Nutrition & Food Research]
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Bile Acid Signaling in Inflammatory Bowel Disease

The authors summarize recent advances in the field of bile acid signaling, studies of inflamed gut microbiome, and the therapeutic potential of bile acids in the context of inflammatory bowel disease.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Microenvironmental Innate Immune Signaling and Cell Mechanical Responses Promote Tumor Growth

Using a Drosophila intestinal model, scientists found that tumor cells outcompeted nearby enterocytes by influencing cell adhesion and contractility.
[Developmental Cell]
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14-3-3σ Functions as an Intestinal Tumor Suppressor

The authors determined that 14-3-3σ expression was significantly downregulated in primary human colorectal cancer when compared with adjacent normal colonic tissue in patient samples. Downregulation of 14-3-3σ in primary colorectal cancers was significantly associated with p53 mutation, increasing tumor stage, distant metastasis, and poor patient survival.
[Cancer Research]
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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Impair Intestinal Barrier Functions in Sepsis by Regulating TLR9-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

Neutrophil extracellular traps treatment induced intestinal epithelial monolayer barrier disruption and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and ER stress inhibition markedly attenuated intestinal apoptosis and tight junction injury.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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miR-802 Regulates Paneth Cell Function and Enterocyte Differentiation in the Mouse Small Intestine

Investigators showed that the intestine-enriched miR-802 was a central regulator of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, Paneth cell function, and enterocyte differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
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Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 and SPI-2 Shape the Global Transcriptional Landscape in a Human Intestinal Organoid Model System

Scientists used a human intestinal organoid model to define host transcriptional responses to S. Typhimurium infection, also determining host pathways dependent on Salmonella pathogenicity island- 1- and -2-encoded type 3 secretion systems
[mBio]
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Vitamin D3 Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Stemness via ER Stress Induction in Intestinal Organoids

Intestinal organoids derived from mouse small intestine were treated with vitamin D3, and the effects on intestinal stemness and differentiation were evaluated using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining of the distinct lineage markers.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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LINGO3 Regulates Mucosal Tissue Regeneration and Promotes TFF2 Dependent Recovery from Colitis

The authors found that LINGO3 was broadly expressed on human enterocytes and sparsely on discrete cells within the crypt niche, that contained sintestinal stem cells.
[Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology]
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An Intercrypt Subpopulation of Goblet Cells Is Essential for Colonic Mucus Barrier Function

Researchers characterized intestinal goblet cells (GCs) expression diversity and defined how a specific GC subtype, localized in the intercrypt surface epithelium, functionally contributed to the formation of the mucus barrier.
[Science]
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