Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Impair Intestinal Barrier Functions in Sepsis by Regulating TLR9-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway

Neutrophil extracellular traps treatment induced intestinal epithelial monolayer barrier disruption and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activation in a dose-dependent manner in vitro, and ER stress inhibition markedly attenuated intestinal apoptosis and tight junction injury.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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miR-802 Regulates Paneth Cell Function and Enterocyte Differentiation in the Mouse Small Intestine

Investigators showed that the intestine-enriched miR-802 was a central regulator of intestinal epithelial cell proliferation, Paneth cell function, and enterocyte differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
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Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 and SPI-2 Shape the Global Transcriptional Landscape in a Human Intestinal Organoid Model System

Scientists used a human intestinal organoid model to define host transcriptional responses to S. Typhimurium infection, also determining host pathways dependent on Salmonella pathogenicity island- 1- and -2-encoded type 3 secretion systems
[mBio]
Lawrence, A.-L. E., Abuaita, B. H., Berger, R. P., Hill, D. R., Huang, S., Yadagiri, V. K., Bons, B., Fields, C., Wobus, C. E., Spence, J. R., Young, V. B., & O’Riordan, M. X. (2021). Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium SPI-1 and SPI-2 Shape the Global Transcriptional Landscape in a Human Intestinal Organoid Model System. MBio, 12(3). https://doi.org/10.1128/mBio.00399-21 Cite
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Vitamin D3 Suppresses Intestinal Epithelial Stemness via ER Stress Induction in Intestinal Organoids

Intestinal organoids derived from mouse small intestine were treated with vitamin D3, and the effects on intestinal stemness and differentiation were evaluated using real-time PCR and immunofluorescence staining of the distinct lineage markers.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Sittipo, P., Kim, H. K., Han, J., Lee, M. R., & Lee, Y. K. (2021). Vitamin D3 suppresses intestinal epithelial stemness via ER stress induction in intestinal organoids. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 285. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02361-2 Cite
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LINGO3 Regulates Mucosal Tissue Regeneration and Promotes TFF2 Dependent Recovery from Colitis

The authors found that LINGO3 was broadly expressed on human enterocytes and sparsely on discrete cells within the crypt niche, that contained sintestinal stem cells.
[Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology]
Zullo, K. M., Douglas, B., Maloney, N. M., Ji, Y., Wei, Y., Herbine, K., Cohen, R., Pastore, C., Cramer, Z., Wang, X., Wei, W., Somsouk, M., Hung, L. Y., Lengner, C., Kohanski, M. H., Cohen, N. A., & Herbert, D. R. (2021). LINGO3 regulates mucosal tissue regeneration and promotes TFF2 dependent recovery from colitis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1917650 Cite
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An Intercrypt Subpopulation of Goblet Cells Is Essential for Colonic Mucus Barrier Function

Researchers characterized intestinal goblet cells (GCs) expression diversity and defined how a specific GC subtype, localized in the intercrypt surface epithelium, functionally contributed to the formation of the mucus barrier.
[Science]
Nyström, E. E. L., Martinez-Abad, B., Arike, L., Birchenough, G. M. H., Nonnecke, E. B., Castillo, P. A., Svensson, F., Bevins, C. L., Hansson, G. C., & Johansson, M. E. V. (2021). An intercrypt subpopulation of goblet cells is essential for colonic mucus barrier function. Science, 372(6539). https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abb1590 Cite
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Immune Modulation Mediated by Extracellular Vesicles of Intestinal Organoids Is Disrupted by Opioids

Researchers showed that extracellular vesicles isolated from mouse and human intestinal organoids modulated inflammatory responses of various immune cells including mouse bone-marrow derived-macrophages, dendritic cells, microglia cells, and human monocytes.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Zhang, Y., Yan, Y., Meng, J., Girotra, M., Ramakrishnan, S., & Roy, S. (2021). Immune modulation mediated by extracellular vesicles of intestinal organoids is disrupted by opioids. Mucosal Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00392-9 Cite
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Porcine Colonoids and Enteroids Keep the Memory of Their Origin during Regeneration

Colonoid and enteroid gene expression signatures were more similar to those found for the tissues of their origin than to each other.
[American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology]
Barnett, A. M., Mullaney, J. A., Hendriks, C., Le Borgne, L., McNabb, W. C., & Roy, N. (2021). Porcine colonoids and enteroids keep the memory of their origin during regeneration. American Journal of Physiology-Cell Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpcell.00420.2020 Cite
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Signaling Pathways in Intestinal Homeostasis and Colorectal Cancer: KRAS at Centre Stage

Scientists summarize the signaling pathways contributing to intestinal cell fates and homeostasis functions, focusing on intestinal stem cell proliferation, cell junction formation, remodeling, hypoxia, the impact of intestinal microbiota, the immune system, inflammation, and metabolism.
[Cell Communication and Signaling]
Ternet, C., & Kiel, C. (2021). Signaling pathways in intestinal homeostasis and colorectal cancer: KRAS at centre stage. Cell Communication and Signaling, 19(1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12964-021-00712-3 Cite
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Culture and Differentiation of Rabbit Intestinal Organoids and Organoid-Derived Cell Monolayers

The authors report a robust protocol for the isolation, maintenance and differentiation of rabbit small intestinal organoids and organoid-derived cell monolayers.
[Scientific Reports]
Kardia, E., Frese, M., Smertina, E., Strive, T., Zeng, X.-L., Estes, M., & Hall, R. N. (2021). Culture and differentiation of rabbit intestinal organoids and organoid-derived cell monolayers. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 5401. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-84774-w Cite
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Murine Astrovirus Tropism for Goblet Cells and Enterocytes Facilitates an IFN-λ Response In Vivo and in Enteroid Cultures

The authors describe a platform to cultivate muAstV using air–liquid interface cultures derived from mouse enteroids, which support apical infection and release.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Ingle, H., Hassan, E., Gawron, J., Mihi, B., Li, Y., Kennedy, E. A., Kalugotla, G., Makimaa, H., Lee, S., Desai, P., McDonald, K. G., Diamond, M. S., Newberry, R. D., Good, M., & Baldridge, M. T. (2021). Murine astrovirus tropism for goblet cells and enterocytes facilitates an IFN-λ response in vivo and in enteroid cultures. Mucosal Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00387-6 Cite
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