Blockade of the Co-Inhibitory Molecule PD-1 Unleashes ILC2-Dependent Antitumor Immunity in Melanoma

Scientists found that high group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2) infiltration in human melanoma was associated with a good clinical prognosis. ILC2s were critical producers of the cytokine granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, which coordinated the recruitment and activation of eosinophils to enhance antitumor responses.
[Nature Immunology]
Jacquelot, N., Seillet, C., Wang, M., Pizzolla, A., Liao, Y., Hediyeh-zadeh, S., Grisaru-Tal, S., Louis, C., Huang, Q., Schreuder, J., Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes, F., de Graaf, C. A., Thia, K., Macdonald, S., Camilleri, M., Luong, K., Zhang, S., Chopin, M., Molden-Hauer, T., … Belz, G. T. (2021). Blockade of the co-inhibitory molecule PD-1 unleashes ILC2-dependent antitumor immunity in melanoma. Nature Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00943-z Cite
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Oleoylethanolamide Induces Eosinophilic Airway Inflammation in Bronchial Asthma

To investigate the effect of OEA, the expression of proinflammatory cytokines was measured by RT-qPCR and ELISA in airway epithelial (A549) cells.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Kwon, E.-K., Choi, Y., Yoon, I.-H., Won, H.-K., Sim, S., Lee, H.-R., Kim, H. S., Ye, Y.-M., Shin, Y. S., Park, H.-S., & Ban, G.-Y. (2021). Oleoylethanolamide induces eosinophilic airway inflammation in bronchial asthma. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-021-00622-x Cite
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The Twilight Zone: Plasticity and Mixed Ontogeny of Neutrophil and Eosinophil Granulocyte Subsets

Researchers shed light on potential processes driving the plasticity and heterogeneity of granulocyte subsets and discuss the hematopoietic flexibility of granulocyte precursors in bone marrow and the adaptation of myeloid cells to local tissue microenvironments.
[Seminars in Immunopathology]
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Induction of the Apoptosis, Degranulation and IL-13 Production of Human Basophils by Butyrate and Propionate via Suppression of Histone Deacetylation

Investigators elucidated the function of short chain fatty acids on human basophils. Human basophils were purified from healthy donors by flow cytometric sorting.
[British Journal of Immunology]
Shi, Y., Xu, M., Pan, S., Gao, S., Ren, J., Bai, R., Li, H., He, C., Zhao, S., Shi, Z., Yu, F., Xiang, Z., & Wang, H. (n.d.). Induction of the apoptosis, degranulation and IL-13 production of human basophils by butyrate and propionate via suppression of histone deacetylation. Immunology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/imm.13370 Cite
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Bidirectional Crosstalk between Eosinophils and Esophageal Epithelial Cells Regulates Inflammatory and Remodeling Processes

Researchers investigated the crosstalk between human eosinophils and esophageal epithelial cells. They reported that blood-derived eosinophils had prolonged survival when co-cultured with epithelial cells.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Dunn, J. L. M., Caldwell, J. M., Ballaban, A., Ben-Baruch Morgenstern, N., Rochman, M., & Rothenberg, M. E. (2021). Bidirectional crosstalk between eosinophils and esophageal epithelial cells regulates inflammatory and remodeling processes. Mucosal Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00400-y Cite
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UDP-Glucose and P2Y14 Receptor Amplify Allergen-Induced Airway Eosinophilia

Researchers showed that UDP-glucose, a nucleotide sugar, was selectively released into the airways of allergen-sensitized mice upon their subsequent challenge with that same allergen.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Karcz, T. P., Whitehead, G. S., Nakano, K., Nakano, H., Grimm, S. A., Williams, J. G., Deterding, L. J., Jacobson, K. A., & Cook, D. N. (2021). UDP-glucose and P2Y14 receptor amplify allergen-induced airway eosinophilia. The Journal of Clinical Investigation, 131(7). https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140709 Cite
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Gene Therapy for a Murine Model of Eosinophilic Esophagitis

Researchers hypothesized that a single administration of an adeno‐associated virus coding for an anti‐eosinophil monoclonal antibody that induces eosinophil clearance would treat on a persistent basis a murine model of eosinophilic esophagitis.
[Allergy]
Camilleri, A. E., Nag, S., Russo, A. R., Stiles, K. M., Crystal, R. G., & Pagovich, O. E. (n.d.). Gene Therapy for a Murine Model of Eosinophilic Esophagitis. Allergy, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/all.14822 Cite
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A Double-Edged Sword of Immuno-Microenvironment in Cardiac Homeostasis and Injury Repair

In adaptive immunity, effector T cells, especially Th17 cells, lead to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, including the distal fibrosis and scar formation. Cardiomyocytes protectors, Treg cells, inhibit reduce the inflammatory response, then directly trigger the regeneration of local progenitor cell via IL-10.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Sun, K., Li, Y., & Jin, J. (2021). A double-edged sword of immuno-microenvironment in cardiac homeostasis and injury repair. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00455-6 Cite
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Immunomodulation for Optimal Cardiac Regeneration: Insights from Comparative Analyses

Comparing the human heart with those of animal models that are capable of cardiac regeneration reveals key differences in the innate and adaptive immune responses to myocardial infarction.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
Farache Trajano, L., & Smart, N. (2021). Immunomodulation for optimal cardiac regeneration: insights from comparative analyses. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00118-2 Cite
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Understanding the Key Issues in the Treatment of Uncontrolled Persistent Asthma with Type 2 Inflammation

Researchers summarize the current understanding of the biology of type 2 inflammation in asthma, examine its influence on type 2 inflammatory comorbidities, and discuss how type 2 inflammatory biomarkers can be harnessed to further personalise treatments in the age of biologic medicines.
[European Respiratory Journal]
Busse, W. W., Kraft, M., Rabe, K. F., Deniz, Y., Rowe, P., Ruddy, M., & Castro, M. (2021). Understanding the key issues in the treatment of uncontrolled persistent asthma with type 2 inflammation. European Respiratory Journal. https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.03393-2020 Cite
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Essential Role of Smooth Muscle Rac1 in Severe Asthma-Associated Airway Remodelling

Researchers demonstrated that Rac1 is overactive in the airways of patients with severe asthma and is essential for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.
[Thorax]
Dilasser, F., Rose, L., Hassoun, D., Klein, M., Rousselle, M., Brosseau, C., Guignabert, C., Taillé, C., Dombret, M. C., Candia, L. D., Heddebaut, N., Bouchaud, G., Pretolani, M., Magnan, A., Loirand, G., & Sauzeau, V. (2021). Essential role of smooth muscle Rac1 in severe asthma-associated airway remodelling. Thorax. https://doi.org/10.1136/thoraxjnl-2020-216271 Cite
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