A Double-Edged Sword of Immuno-Microenvironment in Cardiac Homeostasis and Injury Repair

In adaptive immunity, effector T cells, especially Th17 cells, lead to the pathogenesis of cardiac fibrosis, including the distal fibrosis and scar formation. Cardiomyocytes protectors, Treg cells, inhibit reduce the inflammatory response, then directly trigger the regeneration of local progenitor cell via IL-10.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Sun, K., Li, Y., & Jin, J. (2021). A double-edged sword of immuno-microenvironment in cardiac homeostasis and injury repair. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00455-6 Cite
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Immunomodulation for Optimal Cardiac Regeneration: Insights from Comparative Analyses

Comparing the human heart with those of animal models that are capable of cardiac regeneration reveals key differences in the innate and adaptive immune responses to myocardial infarction.
[npj Regenerative Medicine]
Farache Trajano, L., & Smart, N. (2021). Immunomodulation for optimal cardiac regeneration: insights from comparative analyses. Npj Regenerative Medicine, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41536-021-00118-2 Cite
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Understanding the Key Issues in the Treatment of Uncontrolled Persistent Asthma with Type 2 Inflammation

Researchers summarize the current understanding of the biology of type 2 inflammation in asthma, examine its influence on type 2 inflammatory comorbidities, and discuss how type 2 inflammatory biomarkers can be harnessed to further personalise treatments in the age of biologic medicines.
[European Respiratory Journal]
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Essential Role of Smooth Muscle Rac1 in Severe Asthma-Associated Airway Remodelling

Researchers demonstrated that Rac1 is overactive in the airways of patients with severe asthma and is essential for airway smooth muscle cell proliferation.
[Thorax]
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So Close, and Yet So Far Away: The Dichotomy of the Specific Immune Response and Inflammation in Psoriasis and Atopic Dermatitis

The authors compare genetics, microbiome, T‐cell infiltrate and resulting epithelial response in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis.
[Journal of Internal Medicine]
Schäbitz, A., Eyerich, K., & Garzorz‐Stark, N. (n.d.). So close, and yet so far away: The dichotomy of the specific immune response and inflammation in psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Journal of Internal Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/joim.13235 Cite
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Eosinophils Improve Cardiac Function after Myocardial Infarction

Mechanistic studies revealed roles of eosinophil IL4 and cationic protein mEar1 in blocking H2O2– and hypoxia-induced mouse and human cardiomyocyte death, TGF-β-induced cardiac fibroblast Smad2/3 activation, and TNF-α-induced neutrophil adhesion on the heart endothelial cell monolayer.
[Nature Communications]
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Human Amniotic Membrane-Mesenchymal Stem Cells-Conditioned Medium Reduces Inflammatory Factors and Fibrosis in Ovalbumin-Induced Asthma in Mice

Investigators examined the effects of human amniotic membrane MSCs‐conditioned medium on ovalbumin (OVA)‐induced asthma. 48 hours after the last challenge, serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid samples were collected and used for evaluation of inflammatory factors and cells, respectively.
[Experimental Physiology]
Dalouchi, F., Falak, R., Bakhshesh, M., Aghdam, Z. S., Azizi, Y., & Aboutaleb, N. (n.d.). Human amniotic membrane-mesenchymal stem cells-conditioned medium reduces inflammatory factors and fibrosis in ovalbumin-induced asthma in mice. Experimental Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1113/EP088911 Cite
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Homeostatic and Early-Recruited CD101− Eosinophils Suppress Endotoxin-Induced Acute Lung Injury

Blood eosinophils were increased in surviving patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) independent of corticosteroid usage. There existed homeostatic eosinophils in lung parenchyma in mice and these homeostatic eosinophils, originating from the bone marrow, were predominantly CD101−.
[European Respiratory Journal]
Zhu, C., Weng, Q.-Y., Zhou, L.-R., Cao, C., Li, F., Wu, Y.-F., Wu, Y.-P., Li, M., Hu, Y., Shen, J.-X., Xiong, X.-F., Lan, F., Xia, L.-X., Zhang, B., Zhang, H., Huang, M., Ying, S.-M., Shen, H.-H., Chen, Z.-H., & Li, W. (2020). Homeostatic and early-recruited CD101− eosinophils suppress endotoxin-induced acute lung injury. European Respiratory Journal, 56(5). https://doi.org/10.1183/13993003.02354-2019 Cite
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Identification of Immune Landscape Signatures Associated with Clinical and Prognostic Features of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Investigators combined immune landscape signatures with hepatocellular carcinoma clinical and prognostic features to classify them into distinct subtypes. The immunogenomic profiles, stromal cell features and immune cell composition of the subtypes were then systematically analyzed.
[Aging]
Aging | Identification of immune landscape signatures associated with clinical and prognostic features of hepatocellular carcinoma - Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://www.aging-us.com/article/103977/text Cite
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Fibroblast-Derived IL-33 Facilitates Breast Cancer Metastasis by Modifying the Immune Microenvironment and Driving Type-2 Immunity

Upregulation of IL-33 instigated type-2 inflammation in the metastatic microenvironment, and mediated recruitment of eosinophils, neutrophils and inflammatory monocytes to lung metastases.
[Cancer Research]
Shani, O., Vorobyov, T., Monteran, L., Lavie, D., Cohen, N., Raz, Y., Tsarfaty, G., Avivi, C., Barshack, I., & Erez, N. (2020). Fibroblast-derived IL-33 facilitates breast cancer metastasis by modifying the immune microenvironment and driving type-2 immunity. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-2116 Cite
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Interleukin-33 Activates Regulatory T Cells to Suppress Innate γδ T Cell Responses in the Lung

Scientists describe an unexpected function of ST2+ regulatory T cells in suppressing the innate immune response in the lung to environmental allergens without altering the adaptive immune response.
[Nature Immunology]
Faustino, L. D., Griffith, J. W., Rahimi, R. A., Nepal, K., Hamilos, D. L., Cho, J. L., Medoff, B. D., Moon, J. J., Vignali, D. A. A., & Luster, A. D. (2020). Interleukin-33 activates regulatory T cells to suppress innate γδ T cell responses in the lung. Nature Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-0785-3 Cite
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