Scientists compared the effects of three tissue‐derived mesenchynal stem cells (MSCs) in vivo on colon tumor xenograft growth. Then, they analyzed the tropism of bone marrow‐derived MSCs toward normal intestinal epithelial cells, parental colon cancer cells, CD133−/CD44−, and CD133+/CD44+ colon cancer cells in vitro.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
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Ma, X., Chen, J., Liu, J., Xu, B., Liang, X., Yang, X., Feng, Y., Liang, X., & Liu, J. (n.d.). IL-8/CXCR2 mediates tropism of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells toward CD133+/CD44+ Colon cancer stem cells. Journal of Cellular Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30080 Cite
Scientists performed precise two-dimensional mechanical phenotyping based on power-law rheology to unveil the contributions of myosin II, actin fiber architecture and energy metabolism to the deformability of healthy (MCF-10A), noninvasive cancerous (MCF-7), and metastatic (MDA-MB-231) human breast epithelial cells.
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Dysregulation of intestinal epithelial cells(IEC) homeostasis likely contributes to the development of intestinal inflammation and intestinal cancer. The roles of receptor protein tyrosine kinases and their downstream signaling molecules such as Src family kinases, Ras, and mammalian target of rapamycin in homeostatic regulation of IEC turnover have recently been evaluated.
M2 macrophage-derived exosomal miR-590-3p reduced inflammatory signals and promoted epithelial regeneration by targeting LATS1 and subsequently activating YAP/β-catenin-regulated transcription
[Journal of Crohns & Colitis]
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M2 macrophage-derived exosomal-miR-590-3p attenuates DSS-induced mucosal damage and promotes epithelial repair via the LATS1/YAP/β-catenin signalling axis | Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis | Oxford Academic. (n.d.). Retrieved October 20, 2020, from https://academic.oup.com/ecco-jcc/advance-article-abstract/doi/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjaa214/5930684?redirectedFrom=fulltext Cite
Investigators uncovered that ERK3, a ubiquitously expressed atypical MAPK, was required for KRAS-mediated NSCLC tumors. ERK3 is highly expressed in lung cancers, and oncogenic KRAS led to the activation and stabilization of the ERK3 protein.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Gallic acid nanoparticles were evaluated for the in vitro cytotoxicity, cell uptake and cell migration in four types of human cancer cell lines including breast adenocarcinoma, HepG2 hepatocellular cancer, HT-29 colorectal adenocarcinoma, and MCF-10A breast epithelial cell lines.
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Researchers FACS-purified epithelial cells from human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and normal pancreas and derived their genome-wide transcriptome and DNA methylome landscapes.
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Espinet, E., Gu, Z., Imbusch, C. D., Giese, N. A., Buscher, M., Safavi, M., Weisenburger, S., Klein, C., Vogel, V., Falcone, M., Insua-Rodriguez, J., Reitberger, M., Thiel, V., Kossi, S. O., Muckenhuber, A., Sarai, K., Lee, A. Y., Backx, E., Zarei, S., … Trumpp, A. (2020). Aggressive PDACs show hypomethylation of repetitive elements and the execution of an intrinsic IFN program linked to a ductal cell-of-origin. Cancer Discovery. https://doi.org/10.1158/2159-8290.CD-20-1202 Cite
Investigators studied metastatic deposits of prostate cancers with isoform-specific ΔNp63 and TAp63 antibodies. They identified p63-positive cells in only 3 of 42 metastatic prostate tumors, including 2/38 “usual-type” adenocarcinomas. ΔNp63 and TAp63 isoforms were present in the nuclei of < 1% of tumor cells in these metastases.
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The authors review insights from mice and other vertebrate models into the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms underlying intestinal epithelial identity and microbial responsiveness, including DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility, histone modifications and transcription factors.
[Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology]
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Heppert, J. K., Davison, J. M., Kelly, C., Mercado, G. P., Lickwar, C. R., & Rawls, J. F. (2020). Transcriptional programmes underlying cellular identity and microbial responsiveness in the intestinal epithelium. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-020-00357-6 Cite
Using novel Paneth cell-specific IL-22Ra1 knockout mice, researchers showed that IL-22 signaling in Paneth cells was required for small intestinal host defense. They showed that Paneth cell maturation, antimicrobial effector function, expression of specific WNTs, and organoid morphogenesis were dependent on cell-intrinsic IL-22Ra1 signaling.
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Gaudino, S. J., Beaupre, M., Lin, X., Joshi, P., Rathi, S., McLaughlin, P. A., Kempen, C., Mehta, N., Eskiocak, O., Yueh, B., Blumberg, R. S., van der Velden, A. W. M., Shroyer, K. R., Bialkowska, A. B., Beyaz, S., & Kumar, P. (2020). IL-22 receptor signaling in Paneth cells is critical for their maturation, microbiota colonization, Th17-related immune responses, and anti- Salmonella immunity. Mucosal Immunology, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00348-5 Cite
The authors verified the applicability of 3D organoids for in vitro investigation of intestinal biochemical processes related to transport and metabolism of nutrients and drugs.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
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Zietek, T., Giesbertz, P., Ewers, M., Reichart, F., Weinmüller, M., Urbauer, E., Haller, D., Demir, I. E., Ceyhan, G. O., Kessler, H., & Rath, E. (2020). Organoids to Study Intestinal Nutrient Transport, Drug Uptake and Metabolism – Update to the Human Model and Expansion of Applications. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.577656 Cite