Scientists combined data from secretome and proteome analysis using mass spectrometry with microarray data from mesenchymal transformed breast cancer cells to elucidate the drivers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion.
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Identification of drivers of breast cancer invasion by secretome analysis: insight into CTGF signaling | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-020-74838-8 Cite
The authors describe a method to study whole-tissue extracellular matrix (ECM) effects from disease states associated with metastasis on tumor cell phenotypes and identified the individual ECM proteins and signaling pathways that were driving these effects. They showed that decellularized ECM from tumor-bearing and obese mammary glands drives TNBC cell invasion.
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Decellularized extracellular matrix scaffolds identify full-length collagen VI as a driver of breast cancer cell invasion in obesity and metastasis | Science Advances. (n.d.). Retrieved October 21, 2020, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/43/eabc3175 Cite
The authors investigated the pro-hematopoietic effects and underlying mechanisms of ziyuglycoside II in cyclophosphamide-induced leukopenia in mice.
[Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy]
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Researchers determined that the Siah2 E3 ubiquitin ligase functions in a coincidence detection circuit linking responses to the Shh mitogen and the ECM to control cerebellar granule neurons germinal zone occupancy.
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The authors focus on brain microenvironment features impacted by tumor biology. They also discuss limits of current preclinical models and how complementary models, such as humanized animals and organoids, will allow deeper mechanistic insights on cancer biology, allowing for more efficient testing of therapeutic strategies, including immunotherapy, for brain cancers.
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The authors present the role of exosomes in the tumor microenvironment and the underlying mechanism of how exosomes exacerbate tumor development through metabolic reprogramming.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
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Yang, E., Wang, X., Gong, Z., Yu, M., Wu, H., & Zhang, D. (2020). Exosome-mediated metabolic reprogramming: the emerging role in tumor microenvironment remodeling and its influence on cancer progression. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00359-5 Cite
Investigators showed that GALA induced the glycosylation of the ER-resident calnexin (Cnx) in breast and liver cancer. Glycosylated Cnx and its partner ERp57 are trafficked to invadosomes, which are sites of ECM degradation.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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Ros, M., Nguyen, A. T., Chia, J., Le Tran, S., Le Guezennec, X., McDowall, R., Vakhrushev, S., Clausen, H., Humphries, M. J., Saltel, F., & Bard, F. A. (2020). ER-resident oxidoreductases are glycosylated and trafficked to the cell surface to promote matrix degradation by tumour cells. Nature Cell Biology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-00590-w Cite
Researchers identified Tenascin C (TNC) to be upregulated and secreted in mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype with high NF-κB signaling activity. Silencing TNC decreased proliferation, migration and suppresses self-renewal of glioma stem cells.
By varying the physical properties of collagen, investigators found that MDA-MB-231 tumor cells invaded and escaped faster in lower-density ECM. These effects were mediated by the ECM pore size, rather than by the elastic modulus or interstitial flow speed.
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Scientists challenged network modeling with time-resolved proteome, transcriptome and methylome measurements in iPSC-derived human 3D cardiac microtissues to elucidate adverse mechanisms of anthracycline cardiotoxicity measured with four different drugs.
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Selevsek, N., Caiment, F., Nudischer, R., Gmuender, H., Agarkova, I., Atkinson, F. L., Bachmann, I., Baier, V., Barel, G., Bauer, C., Boerno, S., Bosc, N., Clayton, O., Cordes, H., Deeb, S., Gotta, S., Guye, P., Hersey, A., Hunter, F. M. I., … Kleinjans, J. (2020). Network integration and modelling of dynamic drug responses at multi-omics levels. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01302-8 Cite
Scientists investigated the effectiveness of hyaluronan–methylcellulose hydrogels loaded with Wharton’s Jelly-derived mesenchymal stromal cell in vitro and in a rat coccygeal Intervertebral disc degeneration model.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Choi, U. Y., Joshi, H. P., Payne, S., Kim, K. T., Kyung, J. W., Choi, H., Cooke, M. J., Kwon, S. Y., Roh, E. J., Sohn, S., Shoichet, M. S., & Han, I. (2020). An Injectable Hyaluronan–Methylcellulose (HAMC) Hydrogel Combined with Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (WJ-MSCs) Promotes Degenerative Disc Repair. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(19), 7391. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21197391 Cite