Ruxolitinib Is an Effective Salvage Treatment for Multidrug-Resistant Graft-versus-Host Disease after Haploidentical Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation without Posttransplant Cyclophosphamide

The authors identified the efficacy of ruxolitinib in human leukocyte antigen haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients with multidrug-resistant-graft-versus-host disease.
[Annals of Hematology]
Zhao, J.-Y., Liu, S.-N., Xu, L.-P., Zhang, X.-H., Wang, Y., Chen, Y.-H., Liu, K.-Y., Huang, X.-J., & Mo, X.-D. (2020). Ruxolitinib is an effective salvage treatment for multidrug-resistant graft-versus-host disease after haploidentical allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without posttransplant cyclophosphamide. Annals of Hematology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00277-020-04273-2 Cite
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Combination of SB431542, Chir9901, and Bpv as a Novel Supplement in the Culture of Umbilical Cord Blood Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Considering the most important signaling pathways involved in the self-renewal of hematopoietic stem cells, CB-CD34+ cells were expanded with cytokines in the presence of seven small molecules including SB, PD, Chir, Bpv, Pur, Pμ, and NAM.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Zarrabi, M., Afzal, E., Asghari, M. H., & Ebrahimi, M. (2020). Combination of SB431542, Chir9901, and Bpv as a novel supplement in the culture of umbilical cord blood hematopoietic stem cells. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 474. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01945-8 Cite
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Leptin Receptor, a Surface Marker for a Subset of Highly Engrafting Long-Term Functional Hematopoietic Stem Cells

Using in vitro and in vivo experimental approaches, researchers demonstrated that leptin receptor (Lepr) differentiates SLAM hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) into two distinct populations; Lepr+ HSCs engrafted better than Lepr HSCs in primary transplant.
[Leukemia]
Trinh, T., Ropa, J., Aljoufi, A., Cooper, S., Sinn, A., Srour, E. F., & Broxmeyer, H. E. (2020). Leptin receptor, a surface marker for a subset of highly engrafting long-term functional hematopoietic stem cells. Leukemia, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01079-z Cite
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Repetitive Elements Trigger RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling that Regulates the Emergence of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells

Rig-I or Mda5 deficiency reduced hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell numbers by inhibiting inflammatory signals that were in turn enhanced in Lgp2 deficient embryos.
[Immunity]
Lefkopoulos, S., Polyzou, A., Derecka, M., Bergo, V., Clapes, T., Cauchy, P., Jerez-Longres, C., Onishi-Seebacher, M., Yin, N., Martagon-Calderón, N.-A., Potts, K. S., Klaeylé, L., Liu, F., Bowman, T. V., Jenuwein, T., Mione, M. C., & Trompouki, E. (2020). Repetitive Elements Trigger RIG-I-like Receptor Signaling that Regulates the Emergence of Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.007 Cite
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New Insights Into the Basic Biology of Acute Graft-Versus-Host-Disease

The authors focus on new findings that clarify the roles specific epigenetic regulators play in T cell-mediated aGVHD development and discusses how their modulation could disrupt that process to beneficial effects.
[Haematologica]
New insights into the basic biology of acute graft-versus-host-disease | Haematologica. (n.d.). Retrieved November 7, 2020, from https://haematologica.org/article/view/9902 Cite
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The Bone Marrow Microenvironment of Pre-B Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia at Single-Cell Resolution

The authors used single-cell RNA sequencing to characterize the kinetics of the murine bone marrow microenvironment during B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia progression. Normal pro- and pre-B cells were found to be the most affected at the earliest stages of disease and this was associated with changes in expression of genes regulated by the AP1-transcription factor complex and regulatory factors NELFE, MYC and BCL11A.
[Scientific Reports]
Anderson, D., Skut, P., Hughes, A. M., Ferrari, E., Tickner, J., Xu, J., Mullin, B. H., Tang, D., Malinge, S., Kees, U. R., Kotecha, R. S., Lassmann, T., & Cheung, L. C. (2020). The bone marrow microenvironment of pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia at single-cell resolution. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19173. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76157-4 Cite
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Short-Term Ex-Vivo Exposure to Hydrogen Sulfide Enhances Murine Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cell Migration, Homing and Proliferation

Hydrogen sulfide increases the expression of CXCR4 on HSPCs, enhancing their migration towards SDF-1α in-vitro and thus homing to bone marrow niche along with the higher capacity to repopulate.
[Cell Adhesion & Migration]
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Preemptive Low-Dose Interleukin-2 or DLI for Late-Onset Minimal Residual Disease in Acute Leukemia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Investigators retrospectively compared the efficacy and safety of preemptive recombinant interleukin-2 and pre-DLI for late-onset minimal residual disease in patients receiving allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for acute leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome.
[Annals of Hematology]
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The IL1-IL1RAP Axis Plays an Important Role in the Inflammatory Leukemic Niche that Favors Acute Myeloid Leukemia Proliferation Over Normal Hematopoiesis.

The IL1β-induced inflammatory secretome of IL1RAPexpressing acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells grown on a stromal layer of MSCs affected normal hematopoiesis including hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells while AML cell proliferation was not affected.
[Haematologica]
Boer, B. de, Sheveleva, S., Apelt, K., Vellenga, E., Mulder, A. B., Schuringa, G. H., & Jacob, J. (2020). The IL1-IL1RAP axis plays an important role in the inflammatory leukemic niche that favors acute myeloid leukemia proliferation over normal hematopoiesis. Haematologica, 0–0. https://doi.org/10.3324/haematol.2020.254987 Cite
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Somatic Mutations in UBA1 and Severe Adult-Onset Autoinflammatory Disease

Investigators analyzed peripheral-blood exome sequence data independent of clinical phenotype and inheritance pattern to identify deleterious mutations in ubiquitin-related genes.
[New England Journal of Medicine]
Beck, D. B., Ferrada, M. A., Sikora, K. A., Ombrello, A. K., Collins, J. C., Pei, W., Balanda, N., Ross, D. L., Cardona, D. O., Wu, Z., Patel, B., Manthiram, K., Groarke, E. M., Gutierrez-Rodrigues, F., Hoffmann, P., Rosenzweig, S., Nakabo, S., Dillon, L. W., Hourigan, C. S., … Grayson, P. C. (2020). Somatic Mutations in UBA1 and Severe Adult-Onset Autoinflammatory Disease. New England Journal of Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2026834 Cite
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M. tuberculosis Reprograms Hematopoietic Stem Cells to Limit Myelopoiesis and Impair Trained Immunity

Scientists demonstrated that, unlike Bacille Calmette-Guérin or β-glucan, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) reprograms HSCs via an IFN-I response that suppresses myelopoiesis and impairs development of protective trained immunity to Mtb.
[Cell]
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