Tooth Formation: Are the Hardest Tissues of the Human Body Hard to Regenerate?

Approaches for whole-tooth regeneration utilizing adult stem cells, iPSCs, or tooth germ cells transplantation are emerging as promising alternatives to overcome existing in vitro tissue generation hurdles. The authors discuss the most recent advances in cellular signaling guiding dental tissue genesis.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Baranova, J., Büchner, D., Götz, W., Schulze, M., & Tobiasch, E. (2020). Tooth Formation: Are the Hardest Tissues of Human Body Hard to Regenerate? International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(11), 4031. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114031 Cite
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Autism-Associated SHANK3 Mutations Impair Maturation of Neuromuscular Junctions and Striated Muscles

Investigators used a combination of patient-derived human iPSCs, Shank3Δ11(−/−) mice, and Phelan-McDermid syndrome muscle biopsies from patients of different ages to analyze the role of SHANK3 on motor unit development.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Autism-associated SHANK3 mutations impair maturation of neuromuscular junctions and striated muscles | Science Translational Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://stm.sciencemag.org/content/12/547/eaaz3267 Cite
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A lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA Network for Human Primed, Naive and Extended Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers successfully converted three in-house-derived primed human PSC lines (H10, H24, and iPS) to a naive state and an expanded pluripotent stem cell (EPS) state. Primed, naive and EPS cells displayed state-specific morphologies and expressed pluripotent markers.
[PLoS One]
Ma, Z., Li, Y., Zhang, Y., Chen, J., Tan, T., & Fan, Y. (2020). A lncRNA-miRNA-mRNA network for human primed, naive and extended pluripotent stem cells. PLOS ONE, 15(6), e0234628. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0234628 Cite
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Critical Roles of Translation Initiation and RNA Uridylation in Endogenous Retroviral Expression and Neural Differentiation in Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists generated a conditional knockout of NAT1 in primed pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) and used the cells for the functional analyses of NAT1. Their results showed that NAT1 was required for the self-renewal and neural differentiation of primed PSCs.
[Cell Reports]
Takahashi, K., Jeong, D., Wang, S., Narita, M., Jin, X., Iwasaki, M., Perli, S. D., Conklin, B. R., & Yamanaka, S. (2020). Critical Roles of Translation Initiation and RNA Uridylation in Endogenous Retroviral Expression and Neural Differentiation in Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Reports, 31(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107715 Cite
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Cryopreserved Human Oocytes and Cord Blood Cells Can Produce Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells with a Homozygous HLA Type

Researchers applied a modified derivation method to the PSC line and first obtained human somatic cell nuclear transfer-PSC lines derived from both donated cryopreserved oocytes and cord blood cells with a homozygous human leukocyte antigen type.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Lee, J. E., Lee, J. Y., Park, C.-H., Eum, J. H., Jung, S. K., Han, A.-R., Seol, D.-W., Lee, J. S., Shin, H. S., Im, J. H., Chun, T., Ha, K., Heo, D. R., Yoon, T. K., & Lee, D. R. (2020). Cryopreserved Human Oocytes and Cord Blood Cells Can Produce Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer-Derived Pluripotent Stem Cells with a Homozygous HLA Type. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.05.005 Cite
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Variable Outcomes in Neural Differentiation of Human PSCs Arise from Intrinsic Differences in Developmental Signaling Pathways

The authors focused on a well-established differentiation process to cerebral cortex neural progenitor cells and their neuronal progeny from human PSCs.
[Cell Reports]
Strano, A., Tuck, E., Stubbs, V. E., & Livesey, F. J. (2020). Variable Outcomes in Neural Differentiation of Human PSCs Arise from Intrinsic Differences in Developmental Signaling Pathways. Cell Reports, 31(10). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107732 Cite
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R-Loops Coordinate with SOX2 in Regulating Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Investigators profiled R-loops during somatic cell reprogramming and found that dynamic changes in R-loops are essential for reprogramming and occurred before changes in gene expression.
[Genetics]
R-loops coordinate with SOX2 in regulating reprogramming to pluripotency | Science Advances. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/24/eaba0777 Cite
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Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line Banking for the Production of Rare Blood Type Erythrocytes

Mononuclear cells separated from the peripheral blood of O D-positive and rare blood type donors were cultured to produce and expand erythroid progenitors and reprogrammed into iPSCs. A 31-day serum-free, xeno-free erythroid differentiation protocol was used to generate reticulocytes.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
Human induced pluripotent stem cell line banking for the production of rare blood type erythrocytes | Journal of Translational Medicine | Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-020-02403-y#article-info Cite
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AAV-Mediated FOXG1 Gene Editing in Human Rett Primary Cells

Investigators demonstrated that an adeno-associated viruses-coupled CRISPR/Cas9 system was able to target and correct Forkhead Box G1 (FOXG1) variants in patient-derived fibroblasts, iPSCs and iPSC-derived neurons.
[European Journal of Human Genetics]
Croci, S., Carriero, M. L., Capitani, K., Daga, S., Donati, F., Papa, F. T., Frullanti, E., Lopergolo, D., Lamacchia, V., Tita, R., Giliberti, A., Benetti, E., Niccheri, F., Furini, S., Lo Rizzo, C., Conticello, S. G., Renieri, A., & Meloni, I. (2020). AAV-mediated FOXG1 gene editing in human Rett primary cells. European Journal of Human Genetics, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41431-020-0652-6 Cite
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MicroRNA-181c-5p Promotes the Formation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Targeting smad7 and TGIF2

Investigators differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing cells in a stepwise process that recapitulated pancreas organogenesis and observed that miR-181c-5p continuously accumulated throughout the entire differentiation process.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Metabolic Reprograming via Deletion of CISH in Human iPSC-Derived NK Cells Promotes In Vivo Persistence and Enhances Anti-Tumor Activity

The authors developed human cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein-knockout (CISH−/−) NK cells using an induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NK cell (iPSC-NK cell) platform. CISH−/− iPSC-NK cells demonstrated increased IL-15-mediated JAK-STAT signaling activity.
[Cell Stem Cell]
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