Variable Outcomes in Neural Differentiation of Human PSCs Arise from Intrinsic Differences in Developmental Signaling Pathways

The authors focused on a well-established differentiation process to cerebral cortex neural progenitor cells and their neuronal progeny from human PSCs.
[Cell Reports]
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R-Loops Coordinate with SOX2 in Regulating Reprogramming to Pluripotency

Investigators profiled R-loops during somatic cell reprogramming and found that dynamic changes in R-loops are essential for reprogramming and occurred before changes in gene expression.
[Genetics]
R-loops coordinate with SOX2 in regulating reprogramming to pluripotency | Science Advances. (n.d.). Retrieved June 16, 2020, from https://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/24/eaba0777 Cite
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Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Line Banking for the Production of Rare Blood Type Erythrocytes

Mononuclear cells separated from the peripheral blood of O D-positive and rare blood type donors were cultured to produce and expand erythroid progenitors and reprogrammed into iPSCs. A 31-day serum-free, xeno-free erythroid differentiation protocol was used to generate reticulocytes.
[Journal of Translational Medicine]
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AAV-Mediated FOXG1 Gene Editing in Human Rett Primary Cells

Investigators demonstrated that an adeno-associated viruses-coupled CRISPR/Cas9 system was able to target and correct Forkhead Box G1 (FOXG1) variants in patient-derived fibroblasts, iPSCs and iPSC-derived neurons.
[European Journal of Human Genetics]
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MicroRNA-181c-5p Promotes the Formation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Targeting smad7 and TGIF2

Investigators differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing cells in a stepwise process that recapitulated pancreas organogenesis and observed that miR-181c-5p continuously accumulated throughout the entire differentiation process.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Metabolic Reprograming via Deletion of CISH in Human iPSC-Derived NK Cells Promotes In Vivo Persistence and Enhances Anti-Tumor Activity

The authors developed human cytokine-inducible SH2-containing protein-knockout (CISH−/−) NK cells using an induced pluripotent stem cell-derived NK cell (iPSC-NK cell) platform. CISH−/− iPSC-NK cells demonstrated increased IL-15-mediated JAK-STAT signaling activity.
[Cell Stem Cell]
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Hair-Bearing Human Skin Generated Entirely from Pluripotent Stem Cells

Scientists report an organoid culture system that generated complex skin from human PSCs. They used stepwise modulation of the transforming growth factor β and fibroblast growth factor signaling pathways to co-induce cranial epithelial cells and neural crest cells within a spherical cell aggregate.
[Nature]
Lee, J., Rabbani, C. C., Gao, H., Steinhart, M. R., Woodruff, B. M., Pflum, Z. E., Kim, A., Heller, S., Liu, Y., Shipchandler, T. Z., & Koehler, K. R. (2020). Hair-bearing human skin generated entirely from pluripotent stem cells. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2352-3 Cite
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Alzheimer’s-Associated PLCγ2 Is a Signaling Node Required for Both TREM2 Function and the Inflammatory Response in Human Microglia

The authors used genetically engineered human iPSC-derived microglia-like cells to show that triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) signaled through PLCγ2 to mediate cell survival, phagocytosis, processing of neuronal debris, and lipid metabolism.
[Nature Neuroscience]
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Synergistic Gene Editing in Human iPS Cells via Cell Cycle and DNA Repair Modulation

Scientists established a fluorescent DNA repair assay in human iPSCs to visualize and quantify the frequency of DNA repair outcomes during monoallelic and biallelic targeting.
[Nature Communications]
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N-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Promote Astrocyte Differentiation and Neurotrophin Production Independent of cAMP in Patient-Derived Neural Stem Cells

iPSC-derived neuronal stem cell lines were generated from individuals with major depressive disorder. Astrocytes differentiated from patient-derived neuronal stem cells were verified by GFAP and cells were treated with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid or stearic acid.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
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Acute Myeloid Leukemia iPSCs Reveal a Role for RUNX1 in the Maintenance of Human Leukemia Stem Cells

Researchers report that genetically clonal iPSCs derived from an acute myeloid leukemia patient and characterized by exceptionally high engraftment potential gave rise, upon hematopoietic differentiation, to a phenotypic hierarchy.
[Cell Reports]
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Assembly and Function of a Bioengineered Human Liver for Transplantation Generated Solely from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

Improving methods for liver decellularization, recellularization, and differentiation of different liver cellular lineages of human iPSCs in an organ-like environment, investigators generated functional engineered human mini-livers and performed transplantation in a rat model.
[Cell Reports]
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