Scrt1, a Transcriptional Regulator of β-Cell Proliferation Identified by Differential Chromatin Accessibility during Islet Maturation

Scrt1 expression was controlled by the transcriptional repressor RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST) and was increased in an in vitro reprogramming system of pancreatic exocrine cells to β-like cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Sobel, J., Guay, C., Elhanani, O., Rodriguez-Trejo, A., Stoll, L., Menoud, V., Jacovetti, C., Walker, M. D., & Regazzi, R. (2021). Scrt1, a transcriptional regulator of β-cell proliferation identified by differential chromatin accessibility during islet maturation. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8800. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-88003-2 Cite
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Glucagon Blockade Restores Functional β-Cell Mass in Type 1 Diabetic Mice and Enhances Function of Human Islets

The authors evaluated the potential for a monoclonal antibody antagonist of the glucagon receptor to maintain glucose homeostasis in type 1 diabetic rodents.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Wang, M.-Y., Dean, E. D., Quittner-Strom, E., Zhu, Y., Chowdhury, K. H., Zhang, Z., Zhao, S., Li, N., Ye, R., Lee, Y., Zhang, Y., Chen, S., Yu, X., Leonard, D. C., Poffenberger, G., Deylen, A. V., McCorkle, S. K., Schlegel, A., Sloop, K. W., … Holland, W. L. (2021). Glucagon blockade restores functional β-cell mass in type 1 diabetic mice and enhances function of human islets. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022142118 Cite
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Developmentally-Inspired Biomimetic Culture Models to Produce Functional Islet-Like Cells From Pluripotent Precursors

Scientists highlight the development of in vitro cell culture models that allow systematic studies of pancreatic cell mechanobiology in response to extracellular matrix proteins, biomechanical effects, soluble factor modulation of biomechanics, substrate stiffness, fluid flow and topography.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
Tran, R., Moraes, C., & Hoesli, C. A. (2020). Developmentally-Inspired Biomimetic Culture Models to Produce Functional Islet-Like Cells From Pluripotent Precursors. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.583970 Cite
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Engineering Designer Beta Cells with a CRISPR-Cas9 Conjugation Platform

By leveraging the conjugation platform, scientists successfully engineered INS-1E, a β-cell line, to repurpose the insulin secretion machinery, which enabled the glucose-dependent secretion of protective immunomodulatory factor interleukin-10.
[Nature Communications]

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Current Progress in Stem Cell Therapy for Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

Researchers discuss the current research advances in strategies to obtain insulin-producing cells from different precursor cells and in stem cell-based therapies for diabetes.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Chen, S., Du, K., & Zou, C. (2020). Current progress in stem cell therapy for type 1 diabetes mellitus. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 275. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01793-6 Cite
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Long-Term Culture of Human Pancreatic Slices as a Model to Study Real-Time Islet Regeneration

Using a culture system designed to mimic the physiological oxygenation of the pancreas, scientists demonstrated high viability and preserved endocrine and exocrine function in human pancreatic slices for at least 10 days after sectioning.
[Nature Communications]

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Overexpression of Gjb4 Impairs Cell Proliferation and Insulin Secretion in Primary Islet Cells

Overexpression of gap junction beta 4 protein in primary islet cells significantly inhibited the proliferation by 47%, reduced insulin secretion of primary islets (46%) and INS-1 cells (51%) and enhanced the rate of apoptosis by 63% in INS-1 cells.
[Molecular Metabolism]

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Beta-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes: Mechanisms, Markers, and Clinical Implications

Researchers discuss the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the context of beta-cell failure and describe how C-peptide testing can be used to assess beta-cell function in primary care practice.
[Postgraduate Medicine]
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MicroRNA-181c-5p Promotes the Formation of Insulin-Producing Cells from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Targeting smad7 and TGIF2

Investigators differentiated human induced pluripotent stem cells into insulin-producing cells in a stepwise process that recapitulated pancreas organogenesis and observed that miR-181c-5p continuously accumulated throughout the entire differentiation process.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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