Lactate Activation of α-Cell KATP Channels Inhibits Glucagon Secretion by Hyperpolarizing the Membrane Potential and Reducing Ca2+ Entry

Mouse and human islets were used in combination with confocal microscopy, electrophysiology, GCG immunoassays, and fluorescent thallium flux assays to assess α-cell Ca2+ handling, Vm, KATP currents, and GCG secretion.
[Molecular Metabolism]
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IL-17F Induces Inflammation, Dysfunction and Cell Death in Mouse Islets

IL-17F possessed similar pathogenic activities to IL-17A in mouse β-cell lines and islets and was likely to be a type 17 associated pathogenic factor in type 1 diabetes.
[Scientific Reports]
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Lentiviral Gene Therapy Vectors Encoding VIP Suppressed Diabetes-Related Inflammation and Augmented Pancreatic Beta-Cell Proliferation

The authors suggest the observed therapeutic effect of lentiviral vector carrying VIP gene was due to the repression of diabetes-induced inflammation, its insulinotropic properties, and VIP-induced beta-cell proliferation.
[Gene Therapy]
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DGAT1 Inhibitors Protect Pancreatic β-Cells from Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis

Researchers evaluated the potential beneficial effects of DGAT1 inhibitors on pancreatic β-cells, and further verified their antidiabetic effects in db/db mice.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
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Lentiviral Gene Therapy Vectors Encoding VIP Suppressed Diabetes-Related Inflammation and Augmented Pancreatic Beta-Cell Proliferation

The therapeutic efficacy of LentiVIP was tested in a multiple low-dose STZ-induced animal model of type 1 diabetes. LentiVIP delivery into diabetic animals reduced hyperglycemia, improved glucose tolerance, and prevented weight loss.
[Gene Therapy]
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Identification of an Anti-Diabetic, Orally Available Small Molecule that Regulates TXNIP Expression and Glucagon Action

In rat cells and in mouse and human islets, SRI-37330 inhibited expression and signaling of thioredoxin-interacting protein, previously found to be elevated in diabetes and to have detrimental effects on islet function.
[Cell Metabolism]
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Insulin2Q104del (Kuma) Mutant Mice Develop Diabetes with Dominant Inheritance

Scientists generated a novel Kuma mutant mice with p.Q104del in the Insulin2 gene in a BRJ background that exhibited a severe immune deficiency.
[Scientific Reports]
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Mitomycin C Treatment Improves Pancreatic Islet Graft Longevity in Intraportal Islet Transplantation by Suppressing Proinflammatory Response

Researchers present a simple approach for islet preconditioning that uses the antibiotic mitomycin C, which has antitumor activity, to reduce islet immunogenicity and prevent proinflammatory events in an intraportal islet transplantation model.
[Scientific Reports]
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Functional Loss of Pancreatic Islets in Type 2 Diabetes: How Can We Halt It?

The authors provide a view of the experimental and clinical evidence on the ability of available anti-diabetes drugs to exert protective effects on beta-cells, with a specific focus on human pancreatic islets and clinical trials.
[Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental]
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Rb and p53 Execute Distinct Roles in the Development of Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors

By manipulating Rb and p53 genes, researchers established a multistep progression model from dysplastic islets to indolent pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) and aggressive metastatic PanNET in mice.
[Cancer Research]
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Localized Immunosuppression with Tannic Acid Encapsulation Delays Islet Allograft and Autoimmune-Mediated Rejection

Transplantation of poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone)/tannic acid (PVPON/TA)-encapsulated islets was immunomodulatory as gene expression and flow cytometric analysis revealed significantly decreased in immune cell infiltration, synthesis of ROS, inflammatory chemokines, cytokines, CD8 T cell effector responses, and concomitant increases in alternatively-activated M2 macrophage and dendritic cell phenotypes.
[Diabetes]
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