Hepatic Lipocalin 2 Promotes Liver Fibrosis and Portal Hypertension

Investigators found hepatic lipocalin 2 (LCN2) expression and serum LCN2 level markedly increased and correlated with disease severity and portal hypertension in patients with alcoholic hepatitis.
[Scientific Reports]
Chen, J., Argemi, J., Odena, G., Xu, M.-J., Cai, Y., Massey, V., Parrish, A., Vadigepalli, R., Altamirano, J., Cabezas, J., Gines, P., Caballeria, J., Snider, N., Sancho-Bru, P., Akira, S., Rusyn, I., Gao, B., & Bataller, R. (2020). Hepatic lipocalin 2 promotes liver fibrosis and portal hypertension. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 15558. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-72172-7 Cite
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Chitinase-3 Like-Protein-1 Function and Its Role in Diseases

Non-enzymatic chitinase-3 like-protein-1 (CHI3L1) binds to chitin, heparin, and hyaluronic acid, and is regulated by ECM changes, cytokines, growth factors, drugs, and stress. This review summarizes the potential roles and mechanisms of CHI3L1 in oncogenesis and disease pathogenesis, then posits investigational strategies for targeted therapies.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhao, T., Su, Z., Li, Y., Zhang, X., & You, Q. (2020). Chitinase-3 like-protein-1 function and its role in diseases. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00303-7 Cite
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Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Neratinib Attenuates Liver Fibrosis by Targeting Activated Hepatic Stellate Cells

Researchers elucidated the anti-fibrotic effects of neratinib in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and in vivo models of CCl4-induced liver fibrosis. HSC activation was a key step in liver fibrogenesis and played a crucial role in collagen deposition, as it is primarily responsible for excessive ECM production.
[Scientific Reports]
Park, Y. J., An, H.-T., Park, J.-S., Park, O., Duh, A. J., Kim, K., Chung, K. H., Lee, K. C., Oh, Y., & Lee, S. (2020). Tyrosine kinase inhibitor neratinib attenuates liver fibrosis by targeting activated hepatic stellate cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 14756. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71688-2 Cite
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The Anti-Fibrotic Effect of Human Fetal Skin-Derived Stem Cell Secretome on the Liver Fibrosis

Scientists investigated the effect of human fetal skin-derived stem cell (hFSSC) secretome in the treatment of liver fibrosis. They investigated the anti-fibrotic mechanism of hFSSC secretome in hepatic stellate cells.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Yao, X., Wang, J., Zhu, J., & Rong, X. (2020). The anti-fibrotic effect of human fetal skin-derived stem cell secretome on the liver fibrosis. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 379. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01891-5 Cite
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Key Players of Hepatic Fibrosis

This review explores the causes and mechanisms of hepatic fibrosis and focuses on the roles of key molecules involved in liver fibro genesis, some of which are potential targets for therapeutics to hamper liver fibro genesis.
[Journal of Interferon and Cytokine Research]
Dawood, R. M., El-Meguid, M. A., Salum, G. M., & El Awady, M. K. (2020). Key Players of Hepatic Fibrosis. Journal of Interferon & Cytokine Research. https://doi.org/10.1089/jir.2020.0059 Cite
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The Effect of Matrix Stiffness on Human Hepatocyte Migration and Function—An In Vitro Research

To investigate the effect of ECM stiffness on hepatocyte migration and function, scientists designed an easy fabricated polyvinyl alcohol hydrogel in which stiffness could be controlled by changing the concentration of glutaraldehyde.
[Polymers]
Xia, T., Zhao, R., Feng, F., & Yang, L. (2020). The Effect of Matrix Stiffness on Human Hepatocyte Migration and Function—An In Vitro Research. Polymers, 12(9), 1903. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12091903 Cite
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Co-Cultured Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Repair Thioacetamide-Induced Hepatocyte Damage

The authors aimed to investigate the restorative effects of mouse bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (mBMSCs) on thioacetamide‐induced damage in hepatocytes. An in vitro trans‐well co‐culture system of HepG2 cells were co‐cultured with mBMSCs.
[Cell Biology International]
Chen, H.-C., Awale, S., Wu, C.-P., Lee, H.-H., & Wu, H.-T. (n.d.). Co-cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells repair thioacetamide-induced hepatocyte damage. Cell Biology International, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/cbin.11453 Cite
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C-Jun Acts Downstream of PI3K/AKT Signaling to Mediate the Effect of Leptin on Methionine Adenosyltransferase 2B in Hepatic Stellate Cells In Vitro and In Vivo.

Scientists investigated the effect of leptin on the expression of Mat2b in hepatic stellate cells in vitro and in a leptin‐deficient mouse model. Results demonstrated that leptin significantly increased Mat2b expression.
[Journal of Pathology]
Zhu, X., Jia, X., Cheng, F., Tian, H., & Zhou, Y. (n.d.). c-Jun acts downstream of PI3K/AKT signaling to mediate the effect of leptin on methionine adenosyltransferase 2B in hepatic stellate cells in vitro and in vivo. The Journal of Pathology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/path.5536 Cite
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Mast Cells (MCs) Induce Ductular Reaction Mimicking Liver Injury in Mice via MC-Derived TGF-β1 Signaling

Wild‐type, KitW‐sh, and Mdr2‐/‐ mice lacking l‐histidine decarboxylase were injected with vehicle or PKH26‐tagged murine mast cells pretreated with 0.01% DMSO or the TGF‐βR inhibitor,
[Hepatology]
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HGF and IL-10 Expressing ALB::GFP Reporter Cells Generated From iPSCs Show Robust Anti-Fibrotic Property in Acute Fibrotic Liver Model

Induced hepatocyte-like (iHep) cells were generated from induced pluripotent stem cells integrated with the albumin reporter gene. The therapeutic properties of these iHep cells were investigated after transplantation in fibrotic liver tissues of a mouse model.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Choi, J. S., Jeong, I. S., Park, Y.-J., & Kim, S.-W. (2020). HGF and IL-10 expressing ALB::GFP reporter cells generated from iPSCs show robust anti-fibrotic property in acute fibrotic liver model. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 332. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-01745-0 Cite
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Molecular Profiling Reveals a Common Metabolic Signature of Tissue Fibrosis

Fibrosis, or the accumulation of ECM, is a common feature of many chronic diseases. To interrogate core molecular pathways underlying fibrosis, scientists cross-examined human primary cells from various tissues treated with TGF-β, as well as kidney and liver fibrosis models.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Zhang, J., Muise, E. S., Han, S., Kutchukian, P. S., Costet, P., Zhu, Y., Kan, Y., Zhou, H., Shah, V., Huang, Y., Saigal, A., Akiyama, T. E., Shen, X.-L., Cai, T.-Q., Shah, K., Carballo-Jane, E., Zycband, E., Yi, L., Tian, Y., … Pinto, S. (2020). Molecular Profiling Reveals a Common Metabolic Signature of Tissue Fibrosis. Cell Reports Medicine, 1(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100056 Cite
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