Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Depletion Therapy Targets IL-17A-Expressing Mammary Carcinomas

Investigators report here that IL-17A mRNA and protein were detectable in some human triple-negative breast cancer cell lines and further upregulated by IL-23 and LPS stimulation.
[Scientific Reports]
Dawod, B., Liu, J., Gebremeskel, S., Yan, C., Sappong, A., Johnston, B., Hoskin, D. W., Marshall, J. S., & Wang, J. (2020). Myeloid-derived suppressor cell depletion therapy targets IL-17A-expressing mammary carcinomas. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13343. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70231-7 Cite
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Reversal of Pre-Existing NGFR-Driven Tumor and Immune Therapy Resistance

Researchers chronically exposed patient-derived melanoma cell lines to differentiation antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells and observed strong enrichment of a pre-existing NGFRhi population.
[Nature Communications]
Boshuizen, J., Vredevoogd, D. W., Krijgsman, O., Ligtenberg, M. A., Blankenstein, S., de Bruijn, B., Frederick, D. T., Kenski, J. C. N., Parren, M., Brüggemann, M., Madu, M. F., Rozeman, E. A., Song, J.-Y., Horlings, H. M., Blank, C. U., van Akkooi, A. C. J., Flaherty, K. T., Boland, G. M., & Peeper, D. S. (2020). Reversal of pre-existing NGFR-driven tumor and immune therapy resistance. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3946. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17739-8 Cite
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Prostaglandin E2 Stimulates cAMP Signaling and Re-Sensitizes Human Leukemia Cells to Glucocorticoid-Induced Cell Death

To identify glucocorticoid resistance pathways, investigators conducted a genome-wide, survival-based, shRNA screen in murine T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells.
[Blood]
Roderick, J. E., Gallagher, K. M., Murphy, L. C., O’Connor, K. W., Tang, K., Zhang, B., Brehm, M., Greiner, D. L., Yu, J., Zhu, L. J., Green, M. R., & Kelliher, M. A. (n.d.). Prostaglandin E2 stimulates cAMP signaling and re-sensitizes human leukemia cells to glucocorticoid-induced cell death. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005712 Cite
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EPHA5 Mutation Predicts the Durable Clinical Benefit of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors in Patients with Lung Adenocarcinoma

Scientists report that Eph receptor A5 (EPHA5) mutations were associated with increased tumor mutation burden, neoantigen load, levels of immune-related gene expression signatures, and enhanced tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in lung adenocarcinoma.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Huang, W., Lin, A., Luo, P., Liu, Y., Xu, W., Zhu, W., Wei, T., Lyu, Q., Guo, L., & Zhang, J. (2020). EPHA5 mutation predicts the durable clinical benefit of immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with lung adenocarcinoma. Cancer Gene Therapy, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-020-0207-6 Cite
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The Impact of Donor Type on the Outcome of Pediatric Patients with Very High Risk Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Study of the ALL SCT 2003 BFM-SG and 2007-BFM-International SG

Two consecutive international prospective studies, ALL- stem cell transplantation (SCT)-(I)BFM 2003 and 2007 were conducted in 1150 pediatric patients. 569 presented with very high risk disease leading to any kind of hematopoietic SCT.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Dalle, J.-H., Balduzzi, A., Bader, P., Pieczonka, A., Yaniv, I., Lankester, A., Bierings, M., Yesilipek, A., Sedlacek, P., Ifversen, M., Svec, P., Toporski, J., Gungor, T., Wachowiak, J., Glogova, E., Poetschger, U., & Peters, C. (2020). The impact of donor type on the outcome of pediatric patients with very high risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. A study of the ALL SCT 2003 BFM-SG and 2007-BFM-International SG. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01014-x Cite
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Impact of Donor Source on Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Mature T- and NK-Cell Neoplasms in the Kyoto Stem Cell Transplantation Group

39 patients received bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation from related donors, 37 received BMT/PBSCT from unrelated donors, and 35 received cord blood transplantation
[Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation]
Watanabe, M., Kanda, J., Arai, Y., Hishizawa, M., Nishikori, M., Ishikawa, T., Imada, K., Ueda, Y., Akasaka, T., Yonezawa, A., Nohgawa, M., Kitano, T., Itoh, M., Takeoka, T., Moriguchi, T., Yago, K., Arima, N., Anzai, N., Watanabe, M., … Takaori-Kondo, A. (2020). Impact of donor source on allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for mature T- and NK-cell neoplasms in the Kyoto Stem Cell Transplantation Group. Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbmt.2020.07.032 Cite
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Immune Phenotyping of Diverse Syngeneic Murine Brain Tumors Identifies Immunologically Distinct Types

Researchers generated distinct imageable syngeneic mouse glioblastoma-tumor models and utilized RNA-sequencing, CyTOF and correlative immunohistochemistry to assess immune-profiles in these models.
[Nature Communications]
Khalsa, J. K., Cheng, N., Keegan, J., Chaudry, A., Driver, J., Bi, W. L., Lederer, J., & Shah, K. (2020). Immune phenotyping of diverse syngeneic murine brain tumors identifies immunologically distinct types. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3912. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17704-5 Cite
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Dissection of α4β7 Integrin Regulation by Rap1 Using Novel Conformation-Specific Monoclonal Anti-β7 Antibodies

The small GTPase Rap1 deficiency, as well as chemokine stimulation and the introduction of the active form of Rap1, Rap1V12, enhanced the binding of NZ-1 to the PA-tagged mutant integrin, and increased the binding affinity to mucosal addressing cell adhesion molecule-1.
[Scientific Reports]
Sato, T., Ishihara, S., Marui, R., Takagi, J., & Katagiri, K. (2020). Dissection of α 4 β 7 integrin regulation by Rap1 using novel conformation-specific monoclonal anti-β 7 antibodies. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13221. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70111-0 Cite
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Immunometabolism and HIV-1 Pathogenesis: Food for Thought

The authors summarize current knowledge of the links between HIV-1 infection and immunometabolism, and they discuss the potential opportunities and challenges for therapeutic interventions.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Sáez-Cirión, A., & Sereti, I. (2020). Immunometabolism and HIV-1 pathogenesis: food for thought. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0381-7 Cite
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Single-Cell Analysis of Two Severe COVID-19 Patients Reveals a Monocyte-Associated and Tocilizumab-Responding Cytokine Storm

By employing single-cell analysis of the immune cell composition of two severe-stage COVID-19 patients prior to and following tocilizumab-induced remission, investigators identified a monocyte subpopulation that contributes to the inflammatory cytokine storms.
[Nature Communications]
Guo, C., Li, B., Ma, H., Wang, X., Cai, P., Yu, Q., Zhu, L., Jin, L., Jiang, C., Fang, J., Liu, Q., Zong, D., Zhang, W., Lu, Y., Li, K., Gao, X., Fu, B., Liu, L., Ma, X., … Qu, K. (2020). Single-cell analysis of two severe COVID-19 patients reveals a monocyte-associated and tocilizumab-responding cytokine storm. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17834-w Cite
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Elevation in the Counts of IL-35-Producing B Cells Infiltrating into Lung Tissue in Mycobacterial Infection Is Associated with the Downregulation of Th1/Th17 and Upregulation of Foxp3+Treg

Purified B cells from such patients generated more IL-35 after stimulation by antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and secreted more IL-10.
[Scientific Reports]
Chen, C., Xu, H., Peng, Y., Luo, H., Huang, G.-X., Wu, X.-J., Dai, Y.-C., Luo, H.-L., Zhang, J.-A., Zheng, B.-Y., Zhang, X.-N., Chen, Z. W., & Xu, J.-F. (2020). Elevation in the counts of IL-35-producing B cells infiltrating into lung tissue in mycobacterial infection is associated with the downregulation of Th1/Th17 and upregulation of Foxp3 + Treg. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13212. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69984-y Cite
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