Dissection of α4β7 Integrin Regulation by Rap1 Using Novel Conformation-Specific Monoclonal Anti-β7 Antibodies

The small GTPase Rap1 deficiency, as well as chemokine stimulation and the introduction of the active form of Rap1, Rap1V12, enhanced the binding of NZ-1 to the PA-tagged mutant integrin, and increased the binding affinity to mucosal addressing cell adhesion molecule-1.
[Scientific Reports]
Sato, T., Ishihara, S., Marui, R., Takagi, J., & Katagiri, K. (2020). Dissection of α 4 β 7 integrin regulation by Rap1 using novel conformation-specific monoclonal anti-β 7 antibodies. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13221. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70111-0 Cite
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Immunometabolism and HIV-1 Pathogenesis: Food for Thought

The authors summarize current knowledge of the links between HIV-1 infection and immunometabolism, and they discuss the potential opportunities and challenges for therapeutic interventions.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Sáez-Cirión, A., & Sereti, I. (2020). Immunometabolism and HIV-1 pathogenesis: food for thought. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-020-0381-7 Cite
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Single-Cell Analysis of Two Severe COVID-19 Patients Reveals a Monocyte-Associated and Tocilizumab-Responding Cytokine Storm

By employing single-cell analysis of the immune cell composition of two severe-stage COVID-19 patients prior to and following tocilizumab-induced remission, investigators identified a monocyte subpopulation that contributes to the inflammatory cytokine storms.
[Nature Communications]
Guo, C., Li, B., Ma, H., Wang, X., Cai, P., Yu, Q., Zhu, L., Jin, L., Jiang, C., Fang, J., Liu, Q., Zong, D., Zhang, W., Lu, Y., Li, K., Gao, X., Fu, B., Liu, L., Ma, X., … Qu, K. (2020). Single-cell analysis of two severe COVID-19 patients reveals a monocyte-associated and tocilizumab-responding cytokine storm. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17834-w Cite
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Elevation in the Counts of IL-35-Producing B Cells Infiltrating into Lung Tissue in Mycobacterial Infection Is Associated with the Downregulation of Th1/Th17 and Upregulation of Foxp3+Treg

Purified B cells from such patients generated more IL-35 after stimulation by antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and secreted more IL-10.
[Scientific Reports]
Chen, C., Xu, H., Peng, Y., Luo, H., Huang, G.-X., Wu, X.-J., Dai, Y.-C., Luo, H.-L., Zhang, J.-A., Zheng, B.-Y., Zhang, X.-N., Chen, Z. W., & Xu, J.-F. (2020). Elevation in the counts of IL-35-producing B cells infiltrating into lung tissue in mycobacterial infection is associated with the downregulation of Th1/Th17 and upregulation of Foxp3 + Treg. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13212. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69984-y Cite
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Pharmacological Activation of the Circadian Component REV-ERB Inhibits HIV-1 Replication

Researchers investigated whether REV-ERB activity regulates HIV-1 replication and found REV-ERB agonists inhibited HIV-1 promoter activity in cell lines, primary human CD4 T cells and macrophages, whilst antagonism or genetic disruption of REV-ERB increased promoter activity.
[Scientific Reports]
Borrmann, H., Davies, R., Dickinson, M., Pedroza-Pacheco, I., Schilling, M., Vaughan-Jackson, A., Magri, A., James, W., Balfe, P., Borrow, P., McKeating, J. A., & Zhuang, X. (2020). Pharmacological activation of the circadian component REV-ERB inhibits HIV-1 replication. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70170-3 Cite
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Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation and Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cell for Relapsed or Refractory Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma

Scientists treated 14 relapsed or refractory diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients by combining autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy.
[Immunotherapy]
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Development of an Artificial Antibody Specific for HLA/Peptide Complex Derived from Cancer Stem-Like Cell/Cancer-Initiating Cell Antigen DNAJB8

Investigators developed a therapeutic single-chain variable-fragment antibody that recognises the cancer stem-like cell/cancer-initiating cell antigen, DNAJB8.
[British Journal of Cancer]
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Cytovia Therapeutics Acquires Worldwide Rights to CytoImmune Therapeutics’ First-In-Class EGFR Dual-Targeting CAR for NK Cell Treatment of Glioblastoma & Other Solid Tumors

Cytovia Therapeutics, Inc announced that it has acquired worldwide rights from CytoImmune Therapeutics for its novel EGFR dual-targeting CAR to be used for NK cell therapy.
[Cytovia Therapeutics, Inc. (GlobeNewswire, Inc.)]
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In Vivo Gene Therapy for Canine SCID-X1 Using Cocal-Pseudotyped Lentiviral Vector

Scientists developed an in vivo gene therapy approach to treat canine X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency after hematopoietic stem and progenitor cell mobilization and systemic delivery of the therapeutic vector.
[Human Gene Therapy]
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Targeting HIV Env Immunogens to B Cell Follicles in Nonhuman Primates through Immune Complex or Protein Nanoparticle Formulations

Investigators demonstrated two strategies to concentrate HIV envelope immunogens in follicles, via the formation of immune complexes or by employing self-assembling protein nanoparticles for multivalent display of envelope antigens.
[NPJ Vaccines]
Martin, J. T., Cottrell, C. A., Antanasijevic, A., Carnathan, D. G., Cossette, B. J., Enemuo, C. A., Gebru, E. H., Choe, Y., Viviano, F., Fischinger, S., Tokatlian, T., Cirelli, K. M., Ueda, G., Copps, J., Schiffner, T., Menis, S., Alter, G., Schief, W. R., Crotty, S., … Irvine, D. J. (2020). Targeting HIV Env immunogens to B cell follicles in nonhuman primates through immune complex or protein nanoparticle formulations. Npj Vaccines, 5(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-020-00223-1 Cite
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Selective and Cross-Reactive SARS-CoV-2 T Cell Epitopes in Unexposed Humans

Using human blood samples derived before the SARS-CoV-2 virus was discovered in 2019, the authors mapped 142 T cell epitopes across the SARS-CoV-2 genome to facilitate precise interrogation of the SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T cell repertoire.
[Science]
Mateus, J., Grifoni, A., Tarke, A., Sidney, J., Ramirez, S. I., Dan, J. M., Burger, Z. C., Rawlings, S. A., Smith, D. M., Phillips, E., Mallal, S., Lammers, M., Rubiro, P., Quiambao, L., Sutherland, A., Yu, E. D., Antunes, R. da S., Greenbaum, J., Frazier, A., … Weiskopf, D. (2020). Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans. Science. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abd3871 Cite
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