Innate and Innate-Like Cells: The Future of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Cell Therapy

Scientists review the applicability of these cells in the context of CAR therapy, focusing on therapies under development, the advantages of these approaches relative to conventional CAR-T cells, and their potential in allogeneic therapies.
[Trends in Pharmacological Sciences]
Cortés-Selva, D., Dasgupta, B., Singh, S., & Grewal, I. S. (2020). Innate and Innate-Like Cells: The Future of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Cell Therapy. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2020.11.004 Cite
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Myeloid Cell-Targeted STAT3 Inhibition Sensitizes Head and Neck Cancers to Radiotherapy and T Cell-Mediated Immunity

Local injections of myeloid cell-targeted STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide activated human DCs/macrophages, promoted CD8 T-cell recruitment and thereby arrested UM-SCC1 tumor growth.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Moreira, D., Sampath, S., Won, H., White, S. V., Su, Y.-L., Alcantara, M., Wang, C., Lee, P. P., Maghami, E., Massarelli, E., & Kortylewski, M. (2020). Myeloid cell-targeted STAT3 inhibition sensitizes head and neck cancers to radiotherapy and T cell-mediated immunity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI137001 Cite
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A Critical Role of Endothelial Cell Protein C Receptor in the Intestinal Homeostasis in Experimental Colitis

Investigators report that endothelial cell protein C receptor was expressed in the colon epithelial cells, CD11c+, and CD21+/CD35+ myeloid cells surrounding the crypts in the colon mucosa.
[Scientific Reports]
Kondreddy, V., Keshava, S., Esmon, C. T., Pendurthi, U. R., & Rao, L. V. M. (2020). A critical role of endothelial cell protein C receptor in the intestinal homeostasis in experimental colitis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20569. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77502-3 Cite
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Adaptive T-Cell Immunity Controls Senescence-Prone MyD88- or CARD11-Mutant B-Cell Lymphomas

Scientists functionally investigate primary mouse lymphomas that formed in recipient mice of Eµ-myc transgenic hematopoietic stem cells stably transduced with naturally occurring NF-kB mutants.
[Blood]
Reimann, M., Schrezenmeier, J. F., Richter-Pechanska, P., Dolnik, A., Hick, T. P., Schleich, K., Cai, X., Fan, D. N. Y., Lohneis, P., Masswig, S., Denker, S., Busse, A., Knittel, G., Flümann, R., Childs, D., Childs, L., Gätjens-Sanchez, A. M., Bullinger, L., Rosenwald, A., … Schmitt, C. A. (n.d.). Adaptive T-cell immunity controls senescence-prone MyD88- or CARD11-mutant B-cell lymphomas. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005244 Cite
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Modification of Proteins by Metabolites in Immunity

Scientists review the recent findings in post-translational modifications in macrophages and T cells and speculate whether they could be of use in the effort to develop therapeutics for immune-related diseases.
[Immunity]
Diskin, C., Ryan, T. a. J., & O’Neill, L. a. J. (2020). Modification of Proteins by Metabolites in Immunity. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.09.014 Cite
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Functional Compensation Precedes Recovery of Tissue Mass Following Acute Liver Injury

Scientists identified a new phase of functional compensation following acute liver injury that occurs prior to cellular proliferation.
[Nature Communications]
Functional compensation precedes recovery of tissue mass following acute liver injury | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19558-3 Cite
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Organoids and Spheroids As Novel Models for Studying Cholestatic Liver Injury and Cholangiocarcinoma

The authors summarize current methodologies for organoid/spheroid formation and a potential for 3D hepatic cell cultures as novel in vitro models of cholangiopathies.
[Hepatology]
Organoids and spheroids as novel models for studying cholestatic liver injury and cholangiocarcinoma - Sato - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31653 Cite
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Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Bilateral Communication between Glioblastoma and Astrocytes

Scientists focus on recent findings on extracellular vesicle-mediated bilateral crosstalk, between glioblastoma cells and astrocytes, highlighting the protumor and antitumor roles of astrocytes in glioblastoma development.
[Trends in Neuroscience]
Nieland, L., Morsett, L. M., Broekman, M. L. D., Breakefield, X. O., & Abels, E. R. (2020). Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Bilateral Communication between Glioblastoma and Astrocytes. Trends in Neurosciences, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tins.2020.10.014 Cite
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RIPK1 Expression Associates with Inflammation in Early Atherosclerosis in Humans and Can be Therapeutically Silenced to Reduce NF-κB Activation and Atherogenesis in Mice

Researchers examined expression of RIPK1 protein and mRNA in both human and mouse atherosclerotic lesions, and using loss-of-function approaches in vitro in macrophages and endothelial cells to measure inflammatory responses. They administered weekly injections of RIPK1 anti-sense oligonucleotides to Apoe-/- mice fed a cholesterol-rich diet for eight weeks.
[Circulation]
Karunakaran Denuja, Nguyen My-Anh, Geoffrion Michele, Vreeken Dianne, Lister Zachary, Cheng Henry S., Otte Nicola, Essebier Patricia, Wyatt Hailey, Kandiah Joshua W., Jung Richard, Alenghat Francis J., Mompeon Ana, Lee Richard, Pan Calvin, Gordon Emma, Rasheed Adil, Lusis Aldons J., Liu Peter, … Rayner Katey J. (n.d.). RIPK1 Expression Associates with Inflammation in Early Atherosclerosis in Humans and Can be Therapeutically Silenced to Reduce NF-κB Activation and Atherogenesis in Mice. Circulation, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.118.038379 Cite
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Targeting Tumor-Associated Macrophages to Increase the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Glimpse into Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Metastatic Melanoma

The authors recapitulate the molecular mechanisms by which tumor-associated M2 macrophages (M2-TAMs) promote cancer immune evasion, with focus on the potential cross-talk between pharmacological interventions targeting M2-TAMs and immune checkpoint inhibitors for melanoma treatment.
[Cancers]
Ceci, C., Atzori, M. G., Lacal, P. M., & Graziani, G. (2020). Targeting Tumor-Associated Macrophages to Increase the Efficacy of Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors: A Glimpse into Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Metastatic Melanoma. Cancers, 12(11), 3401. https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers12113401 Cite
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Toll-Like Receptor 4 Regulates Intestinal Fibrosis via Cytokine Expression and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition

The authors investigated the role of toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in intestinal fibrosis using not only a murine fibrosis model but also human myofibroblasts and intestinal epithelial cells. Colon fibrosis was induced in TLR4-deficient mice and its wild-type counterparts with 3% dextran sulfate sodium.
[Scientific Reports]
Jun, Y. K., Kwon, S. H., Yoon, H. T., Park, H., Soh, H., Lee, H. J., Im, J. P., Kim, J. S., Kim, J. W., & Koh, S.-J. (2020). Toll-like receptor 4 regulates intestinal fibrosis via cytokine expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19867. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76880-y Cite
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