Endothelial Thrombomodulin Downregulation Caused by Hypoxia Contributes to Severe Infiltration and Coagulopathy in COVID-19 Patient Lungs

Pulmonary endothelial cells become dysfunctional during COVID-19, showing a loss of thrombomodulin expression related to severe thrombosis and infiltration, and endothelial cell dysfunction might be caused by a pathologic condition in COVID-19 patient lungs rather than a direct infection with SARS-CoV-2.
[Ebiomedicine]
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Dapagliflozin Exerts Anti-inflammatory Effects via Inhibition of LPS-Induced TLR-4 Overexpression and NF-κB Activation in Human Endothelial Cells and Differentiated Macrophages

The authors assessed the direct anti-inflammatory effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors dapagliflozin on two cell types involved in the process of atherogenesis.
[European Journal of Pharmacology]
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Citrulline Depletion by ASS1 Is Required for Proinflammatory Macrophage Activation and Immune Responses

Investigators found that macrophage citrulline declined rapidly after interferon gamma (IFN-γ) and/or lipopolysaccharide stimulation, which was required for efficient proinflammatory signaling activation.
[Molecular Cell]
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CD169+ Macrophages in Lymph Node and Spleen Critically Depend on Dual RANK and LTbetaR Signaling

The authors demonstrated that lymph node CD169+ macrophages were dependent on direct lymphotoxin beta receptor signaling.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
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Molecular Mechanisms behind Persistent Presence of Parvovirus B19 in Human Dilated Myocardium

Researchers measured the levels of inflammation, fibrosis, apoptosis, and necrosis in endomyocardial biopsies and sera of nonischemic PVB19-positive and PVB19-negative dilated cardiomyopathy patients.
[Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology]
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CCR2 Promotes Monocyte Recruitment and Intestinal Inflammation in Mice Lacking the Interleukin-10 Receptor

Investigators asked whether CCR2 was necessary for the development of colitis in mice lacking the receptor for IL10.
[Scientific Reports]
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An Immunologically Active, Adipose-Derived Extracellular Matrix Biomaterial for Soft Tissue Reconstruction: Concept to Clinical Trial

Researchers developed an “off-the-shelf” adipose ECM biomaterial from allograft human tissue, applying physical and chemical processing methods to remove lipids and create an injectable matrix that mimicked the properties of lipoaspirate.
[NPJ Regenerative Medicine]
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Sapidolide a Alleviates Acetaminophen-Induced Acute Liver Injury by Inhibiting NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation in Macrophages

Scientists investigated whether sapidolide A exerted protective effects on macrophages, thus alleviating the secondary hepatocyte damage in an acetaminophen-induced liver injury.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
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The Impact of the Lung Environment on Macrophage Development, Activation and Function: Diversity in the Face of Adversity

Scientists discuss recent developments in our understanding of lung macrophage heterogeneity, ontogeny, metabolism and function in the context of health and disease, and highlight core conceptual advances and key unanswered questions that we believe should be focus of work in the coming years.
[Mucosal Immunology]
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CD116+ Fetal Precursors Migrate to the Perinatal Lung and Give Rise to Human Alveolar Macrophages

Scientists identified alveolar macrophage progenitors in human fetal liver that expressed the GM-CSF receptor CD116 and the transcription factor MYB.
[Journal of Experimental Medicine]
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Targeting Prooxidant MnSOD Effect Inhibits Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) Progression and M2 Macrophage Functions under the Oncogenic Stress

Knockdown of MnSOD inhibited TNBC cell invasion, breast cancer stem cells, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and interleukin-6 excretion promoted by multiple copies in T cell malignancy-1.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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