Breast Cancers, Mammary Stem Cells, and Cancer Stem Cells, Characteristics, and Hypotheses

Two models have been proposed to explain the cell of origin of breast cancer and involve either the reprogramming of differentiated mammary cells or the dysregulation of mammary stem cells or progenitors. Both hypotheses are not exclusive and imply the accumulation of independent mutational events.
[Neoplasia]
Taurin, S., & Alkhalifa, H. (2020). Breast cancers, mammary stem cells, and cancer stem cells, characteristics, and hypotheses. Neoplasia, 22(12), 663–678. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neo.2020.09.009 Cite
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The Molecular Basis of Mammary Gland Development and Epithelial Differentiation

Investigators provide an overview of the latest research in the single-cell genomics of mammary gland development, which may help to understand the lineage commitment of mammary stem cells into luminal or basal epithelial cells that constitute the mammary gland.
[Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology]
Slepicka, P. F., Somasundara, A. V. H., & dos Santos, C. O. (2020). The molecular basis of mammary gland development and epithelial differentiation. Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.semcdb.2020.09.014 Cite
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TET2 Directs Mammary Luminal Cell Differentiation and Endocrine Response

Scientists revealed that TET2 played a pivotal role in mammary gland development and luminal lineage commitment.
[Nature Communications]
Kim, M. R., Wu, M.-J., Zhang, Y., Yang, J.-Y., & Chang, C. J. (2020). TET2 directs mammary luminal cell differentiation and endocrine response. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4642. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18129-w Cite
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Whole Transcriptome Analysis of Bovine Mammary Progenitor Cells by P-Cadherin Enrichment as a Marker in the Mammary Cell Hierarchy

When investigators analyzed only the genes that were differentially expressed in the stem cell enriched fraction, clusters of downregulated genes were related to proliferation, while among the upregulated expression, cluster of genes related to cell adhesion, migration and cytoskeleton organization were observed.
[Scientific Reports]
Martignani, E., Ala, U., Sheehy, P. A., Thomson, P. C., & Baratta, M. (2020). Whole transcriptome analysis of bovine mammary progenitor cells by P-Cadherin enrichment as a marker in the mammary cell hierarchy. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 14183. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-71179-4 Cite
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TGF-β Regulates Sca-1 Expression and Plasticity of Pre-Neoplastic Mammary Epithelial Stem Cells

Scientists provided evidence that TGF-β disrupted the lineage commitment and promoted the accumulation of tumor-initiating cells in pre-neoplastic cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Remšík, J., Pícková, M., Vacek, O., Fedr, R., Binó, L., Hampl, A., & Souček, K. (2020). TGF-β regulates Sca-1 expression and plasticity of pre-neoplastic mammary epithelial stem cells. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 11396. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67827-4 Cite
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