Direct Reprogramming of Epithelial Cell Rests of Malassez into Mesenchymal-Like Cells by Epigenetic Agents

Researchers examined the roles of 5-Azacytidine and valproic acid in the dedifferentiation of epithelial cell rests of Malassez into stem-like cells. Additionally, the ability of stem-like cells to differentiate into mesenchymal cells was evaluated.
[Scientific Reports]
Yoshida, K., Uehara, O., Kurashige, Y., Paudel, D., Onishi, A., Neopane, P., Hiraki, D., Morikawa, T., Harada, F., Takai, R., Sato, J., Saitoh, M., & Abiko, Y. (2021). Direct reprogramming of epithelial cell rests of malassez into mesenchymal-like cells by epigenetic agents. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1852. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79426-4 Cite
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Direct Reprogramming of Epithelial Cell Rests of Malassez into Mesenchymal-Like Cells by Epigenetic Agents

Epithelial cell rests of malassez was cultured in ESC medium with 1 µM of 5-Azacytidine (5Aza), or 2 mM ofvalproic acid (Vpa), or a combination of 5Aza and Vpa. The cells stimulated with both 5Aza and Vpa were named as progenitor-dedifferentiated into stem-like cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Yoshida, K., Uehara, O., Kurashige, Y., Paudel, D., Onishi, A., Neopane, P., Hiraki, D., Morikawa, T., Harada, F., Takai, R., Sato, J., Saitoh, M., & Abiko, Y. (2021). Direct reprogramming of epithelial cell rests of malassez into mesenchymal-like cells by epigenetic agents. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1852. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-79426-4 Cite
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Human Umbilical Cord Perivascular Cells Maintain Regenerative Traits Following Exposure to Cyclophosphamide

Investigators evaluated two properties of a novel source of MSCs- first trimester human umbilical cord perivascular cells- that may render them a promising candidate for chemotherapeutic gonadal injury prevention.
[Cancer Letters]
Zohni, K., Lopez, L., Mander, P., Szaraz, P., Filice, M., Wyse, B. A., Garcia, M., Gat, I., Glass, K., Gauthier-Fisher, A., & Librach, C. L. (2020). Human umbilical cord perivascular cells maintain regenerative traits following exposure to cyclophosphamide. Cancer Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2020.12.035 Cite
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Transcriptional Activators YAP/TAZ and AXL Orchestrate Dedifferentiation, Cell Fate, and Metastasis in Human Osteosarcoma

To identify key drivers of metastasis, scientists studied human CCH-OS-D osteocarcinoma cells within a previously described rat acellular lung model that preserved the native lung architecture, extracellular matrix, and capillary network.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Lamhamedi-Cherradi, S.-E., Mohiuddin, S., Mishra, D. K., Krishnan, S., Velasco, A. R., Vetter, A. M., Pence, K., McCall, D., Truong, D. D., Cuglievan, B., Menegaz, B. A., Utama, B., Daw, N. C., Molina, E. R., Zielinski, R. J., Livingston, J. A., Gorlick, R., Mikos, A. G., Kim, M. P., & Ludwig, J. A. (2021). Transcriptional activators YAP/TAZ and AXL orchestrate dedifferentiation, cell fate, and metastasis in human osteosarcoma. Cancer Gene Therapy, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-020-00281-6 Cite
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Identification of a Repair-Supportive Mesenchymal Cell Population during Airway Epithelial Regeneration

Scientists highlighted the dynamics of mesenchymal cells in the airway niche and implications for chronic airway-injury-associated diseases.
[Cell Reports]
Moiseenko, A., Vazquez-Armendariz, A. I., Kheirollahi, V., Chu, X., Tata, A., Rivetti, S., Günther, S., Lebrigand, K., Herold, S., Braun, T., Mari, B., Langhe, S. D., Kwapiszewska, G., Günther, A., Chen, C., Seeger, W., Tata, P. R., Zhang, J.-S., Bellusci, S., & Agha, E. E. (2020). Identification of a Repair-Supportive Mesenchymal Cell Population during Airway Epithelial Regeneration. Cell Reports, 33(12). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108549 Cite
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Building Inner Ears: Recent Advances and Future Challenges for In Vitro Organoid Systems

The authors provide a perspective on the status of in vitro inner ear models and guidance on how to improve their applicability in translational research. They highlight the generation of inner ear cell types from pluripotent stem cells as a particularly promising focus of research.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
van der Valk, W. H., Steinhart, M. R., Zhang, J., & Koehler, K. R. (2020). Building inner ears: recent advances and future challenges for in vitro organoid systems. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00678-8 Cite
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Distinct Populations of Crypt-Associated Fibroblasts Act as Signaling Hubs to Control Colon Homeostasis

To describe the relevant cell populations in an unbiased manner, researchers carried out a single-cell transcriptome analysis of the adult murine colon, producing a high-quality atlas of matched colonic epithelium and mesenchyme.
[PLoS Biology]
Brügger, M. D., Valenta, T., Fazilaty, H., Hausmann, G., & Basler, K. (2020). Distinct populations of crypt-associated fibroblasts act as signaling hubs to control colon homeostasis. PLOS Biology, 18(12), e3001032. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3001032 Cite
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TGFβ-Blockade Uncovers Stromal Plasticity in Tumors by Revealing the Existence of a Subset of Interferon-Licensed Fibroblasts

Researchers performed an unbiased interrogation of tumor MSCs, delineating the co-existence of distinct subsets of cancer-associated fibroblasts in the microenvironment of murine carcinomas, each endowed with unique phenotypic features and functions.
[Nature Communications]
Grauel, A. L., Nguyen, B., Ruddy, D., Laszewski, T., Schwartz, S., Chang, J., Chen, J., Piquet, M., Pelletier, M., Yan, Z., Kirkpatrick, N. D., Wu, J., deWeck, A., Riester, M., Hims, M., Geyer, F. C., Wagner, J., MacIsaac, K., Deeds, J., … Cremasco, V. (2020). TGFβ-blockade uncovers stromal plasticity in tumors by revealing the existence of a subset of interferon-licensed fibroblasts. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6315. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19920-5 Cite
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Single-Cell Sequencing of Developing Human Gut Reveals Transcriptional Links to Childhood Crohn’s Disease

Researchers drew parallels between the transcriptomes of ex vivo tissues and in vitro fetal organoids, revealing the maturation of organoid cultures in a dish.
[Developmental Cell]
Elmentaite, R., Ross, A. D. B., Roberts, K., James, K. R., Ortmann, D., Gomes, T., Nayak, K., Tuck, L., Pritchard, S., Bayraktar, O. A., Heuschkel, R., Vallier, L., Teichmann, S. A., & Zilbauer, M. (2020). Single-Cell Sequencing of Developing Human Gut Reveals Transcriptional Links to Childhood Crohn’s Disease. Developmental Cell. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.11.010 Cite
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Deficit in Adipose Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Nasal Polyps Compared to Nasal Mucosal Tissue

MSC cultures were induced to differentiate toward adipocytes, where lipid droplets and adipocyte genes PPARγ2, ADIPO-Q, and FABP4 were observed in control non-polyp nasal mucosa-derived mesenchymal cells but were scarcely present in the cultures derived from the nasal polyps, where apoptosis was evident.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Chiarella, E., Lombardo, N., Lobello, N., Piazzetta, G. L., Morrone, H. L., Mesuraca, M., & Bond, H. M. (2020). Deficit in Adipose Differentiation in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Chronic Rhinosinusitis Nasal Polyps Compared to Nasal Mucosal Tissue. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(23), 9214. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21239214 Cite
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Differentiated Daughter Cells Regulate Stem Cell Proliferation and Fate through Intra-Tissue Tension

Using two distinct mouse lines, scientists found that increasing contractility of differentiated cells resulted in non-cell-autonomous hyperproliferation of stem cells and prevented their commitment to a hair follicle lineage.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Ning, W., Muroyama, A., Li, H., & Lechler, T. (2020). Differentiated Daughter Cells Regulate Stem Cell Proliferation and Fate through Intra-tissue Tension. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.11.002 Cite
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