Co‑Transplantation of Tonsil‑Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells in Bone Marrow Transplantation Promotes Thymus Regeneration and T Cell Diversity following Cytotoxic Conditioning

Researchers found that the co‑transplantation of tonsil‑derived mesenchymal stromal cells (T‑MSCs) with bone marrow‑derived cells (BMCs) accelerated the recovery of involuted thymuses in mice following partial pre‑bone marrow transplantation conditioning with busulfan‑cyclophosphamide treatment, possibly by inducing FMS‑like tyrosine kinase 3 ligand and fibroblast growth factor 7 production in T‑MSCs.
[International Journal of Molecular Medicine]
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MiR-200b in Heme Oxygenase-1-Modified Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Exosomes Alleviates Inflammatory Injury of Intestinal Epithelial Cells by Targeting High Mobility Group Box 3

Scientists identified that exosomes derived from HO-1/BMMSCs played an important role in alleviating the inflammatory injury of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). The mechanism was related to miR-200b targeting the abnormally increased expression of the high mobility group box 3 (HMGB) gene in IECs induced by inflammatory injury. The reduced level of HMGB3 then decreases the inflammatory injury.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Dose and Duration of Interferon γ Pre-Licensing Interact with Donor Characteristics to Influence the Expression and Function of Indoleamine-2,3-Dioxygenase in Mesenchymal Stromal Cells

Scientists found that across three human MSC donors, MSCs increased their expression of indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase in response to both increased dose of IFNγ and duration of pre-licensing.
[Journal of the Royal Society interface]
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Secretome Analysis of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Factors Fostering Oligodendroglial Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells In Vivo

Scientists demonstrated that MSC-derived factors could stimulate oligodendrogenesis and myelin sheath generation of adult neural stem cells transplanted into different rodent central nervous system regions.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Bone Regeneration Capacities of Alveolar Bone Mesenchymal Stem Cells Sheet in Rabbit Calvarial Bone Defect

Scientists compared the osteogenic differentiation and bone defect repairment characteristics of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells sheets derived from alveolar bone and iliac bone in vitro and in vivo.
[Journal of Tissue Engineering]
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Human Gingiva-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Are Therapeutic in Lupus Nephritis through Targeting of CD39-CD73 Signaling Pathway

Investigators demonstrated that the adoptive transfer of gingiva derived mesenchymal stem cells homes to and maintains in the kidney and had a robust therapeutic effect in a spontaneous lupus nephritis model.
[Journal of Autoimmunity]
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Nanospheres Loaded with Curcumin Improve the Bioactivity of Umbilical Cord Blood-Mesenchymal Stem Cells via c-Src Activation during the Skin Wound Healing Process

Researchers investigated the functional role of a nanosphere loaded with curcumin (CN) in the promotion of the motility of human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) during the skin wound healing process. They found that transplantation of umbilical cord blood-MSCs pre-treated with CN enhanced wound closure, granulation, and re-epithelialization at mouse skin wound sites.
[Cells]
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Human Umbilical Cord Blood–Derived MSCs Exosome Attenuate Myocardial Injury by Inhibiting Ferroptosis in Acute Myocardial Infarction Mice

Compared with sham or normoxia groups, RT-PCR and western blotting showed that divalent metal transporter 1 expression was significantly increased, and Prussian blue staining, ferrous iro, MDA, and GSH level detection demonstrated that ferroptosis occurred in the infraction myocardium and in cardiomyocyte following hypoxia-induced injury.
[Cell Biology and Toxicology]
Song, Y., Wang, B., Zhu, X., Hu, J., Sun, J., Xuan, J., & Ge, Z. (2020). Human umbilical cord blood–derived MSCs exosome attenuate myocardial injury by inhibiting ferroptosis in acute myocardial infarction mice. Cell Biology and Toxicology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10565-020-09530-8 Cite
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Cross Talk between Mesenchymal and Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Communication beyond Controversies

The authors discuss recent findings on the complex nature of MSCs, focusing on their elusive impact on glioblastoma progression and aggressiveness by direct cell‐cell interaction and via secretome, also facing the perspectives and challenges in treatment strategies.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
Bajetto, A., Thellung, S., Dellacasagrande, I., Pagano, A., Barbieri, F., & Florio, T. (n.d.). Cross talk between mesenchymal and glioblastoma stem cells: Communication beyond controversies. STEM CELLS Translational Medicine, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/sctm.20-0161 Cite
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Mesenchymal Stem Cells Offer a Drug-Tolerant and Immune-Privileged Niche to Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Investigators report that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) sheltered Mybacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) to help tolerate anti-TB drugs. MSCs readily took up Mtb and allowed unabated mycobacterial growth despite having a functional innate pathway of phagosome maturation.
[Nature Communications]
Mesenchymal stem cells offer a drug-tolerant and immune-privileged niche to Mycobacterium tuberculosis | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved June 17, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-16877-3 Cite
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Direct Incorporation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells into a Nanofiber Scaffold – In Vitro and In Vivo Analysis

Stem cells isolated from rat femora were incorporated into poly-l-lactide acid (PLLA) and PLLA-collagen type-I nanofiber scaffolds via simultaneous electrospinning and spraying.
[Scientific Reports]
Schüttler, K. F., Bauhofer, M. W., Ketter, V., Giese, K., Eschbach, D. A., Yenigün, M., Fuchs-Winkelmann, S., & Paletta, J. R. J. (2020). Direct incorporation of mesenchymal stem cells into a Nanofiber scaffold – in vitro and in vivo analysis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 9557. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66281-6 Cite
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Gaucher Disease-Associated Alterations in Mesenchymal Stem Cells Reduce Osteogenesis and Favour Adipogenesis Processes with Concomitant Increased Osteoclastogenesis

Researchers evaluated the process of osteoclastogenesis and observed that conditioned media from Gaucher disease MSCs supernatants induced an increase in the number of osteoclasts.
[Molecular Genetics and Metabolism]
Crivaro, A., Bondar, C., Mucci, J. M., Ormazabal, M., Feldman, R. A., Delpino, M. V., & Rozenfeld, P. A. (2020). Gaucher disease-associated alterations in mesenchymal stem cells reduce osteogenesis and favour adipogenesis processes with concomitant increased osteoclastogenesis. Molecular Genetics and Metabolism. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ymgme.2020.06.003 Cite
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