Blockade of the AHR Restricts a Treg-Macrophage Suppressive Axis Induced by L-Kynurenine

The authors showed that the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) pathway was selectively active in indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 and tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase 2-overexpressing tumors and was associated with resistance to immune checkpoint inhibitors.
[Nature Communications]
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Tumor-Associated Neutrophils Orchestrate Intratumoural IL-8-Driven Immune Evasion through Jagged2 Activation in Ovarian Cancer

Scientists characterized tumor associated neutrophils (TANs) using flow cytometric analysis and immunofluorescence analysis. The prognostic merit of TANs in epithelial ovarian cancer was evaluated using cox regression analysis.
[British Journal of Cancer]
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Immunogenic Cell Death of Breast Cancer Stem Cells by an Endoplasmic Reticulum‐Targeting Copper(II) Complex

Investigators report a copper(II) complex containing a Schiff base ligand and a polypyridyl ligand, 4 capable of inducing immunogenic cell death in breast cancer stem cells.
[Chembiochem]
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Complement and Tissue Factor-Enriched Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Are Key Drivers in COVID-19 Immunothrombosis

The authors investigated how complement interacted with the platelet/neutrophil extracellular traps (NETS)/thrombin axis, using COVID-19 specimens, cell-based inhibition studies and NETs/human aortic endothelial cell co-cultures.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Transcriptome Sequencing Supports a Conservation of Macrophage Polarization in Fish

Investigators confirmed that macrophages from common carp could polarize into M1- and M2 phenotypes with conserved functions and corresponding transcriptional profiles compared to mammalian macrophages.
[Scientific Reports]
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Inhibition of Mitophagy Drives Macrophage Activation and Anti-bacterial Defense during Sepsis

Scientists showed that lipopolysaccharide in combination with IFNγ, inhibited PINK1-dependent mitophagy in macrophages through a STAT1-dependent activation of the inflammatory caspases 1 and 11.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Gene Therapy for Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Deficiency with an Oxidant-Resistant Human Alpha 1-Antitrypsin

Scientists hypothesized that a onetime administration of a serotype 8 adeno-associated virus gene transfer vector coding for the oxidation-resistant variant alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) would maintain antiprotease activity under oxidant stress compared with normal AAT.
[JCI Insight]
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Cardiomyocyte Transplantation after Myocardial Infarction Alters the Immune Response in the Heart

The authors showed for the first time that the immune response is altered as a result of syngeneic neonatal cardiomyocyte transplantation after myocardial infarction leading to improved cardiac pump function as observed by magnetic resonance imaging in C57BL/6J mice.
[Cells]
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Neutrophil Extracellular Traps Amplify Neutrophil Recruitment and Inflammation in Neutrophilic Asthma by Stimulating the Airway Epithelial Cells to Activate the TLR4/NF-κB Pathway and Secrete Chemokines

Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) and neutrophil swarming was seen in a mouse model of neutrophilic asthma. Additionally, NETs were found to stimulate airway cells to express CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL8 via the TLR4/NF-κB pathway, which recruits neutrophils to the inflammation site.
[Aging]
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Promotion of the Immunomodulatory Properties and Osteogenic Differentiation of Adipose‐Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Vitro by Lentivirus‐Mediated miR‐146a Sponge Expression

Investigators employed miRNA sponges that were forcibly expressed using a lentiviral vector to knock‐down the expression of miR‐146a in human adipose‐derived stem cells.
[Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine]
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HGF and IL-10 Expressing ALB::GFP Reporter Cells Generated From iPSCs Show Robust Anti-Fibrotic Property in Acute Fibrotic Liver Model

Induced hepatocyte-like (iHep) cells were generated from induced pluripotent stem cells integrated with the albumin reporter gene. The therapeutic properties of these iHep cells were investigated after transplantation in fibrotic liver tissues of a mouse model.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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