By employing single-cell analysis of the immune cell composition of two severe-stage COVID-19 patients prior to and following tocilizumab-induced remission, investigators identified a monocyte subpopulation that contributes to the inflammatory cytokine storms.
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Guo, C., Li, B., Ma, H., Wang, X., Cai, P., Yu, Q., Zhu, L., Jin, L., Jiang, C., Fang, J., Liu, Q., Zong, D., Zhang, W., Lu, Y., Li, K., Gao, X., Fu, B., Liu, L., Ma, X., … Qu, K. (2020). Single-cell analysis of two severe COVID-19 patients reveals a monocyte-associated and tocilizumab-responding cytokine storm. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3924. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17834-w Cite
Researchers investigated whether REV-ERB activity regulates HIV-1 replication and found REV-ERB agonists inhibited HIV-1 promoter activity in cell lines, primary human CD4 T cells and macrophages, whilst antagonism or genetic disruption of REV-ERB increased promoter activity.
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Borrmann, H., Davies, R., Dickinson, M., Pedroza-Pacheco, I., Schilling, M., Vaughan-Jackson, A., Magri, A., James, W., Balfe, P., Borrow, P., McKeating, J. A., & Zhuang, X. (2020). Pharmacological activation of the circadian component REV-ERB inhibits HIV-1 replication. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 13271. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-70170-3 Cite
Investigators examined the CD34+c-Kit+Flt3+ myeloid progenitor population as potential mutation carrier in all langerhans cell histiocytosis disease manifestations.
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Xiao, Y., van Halteren, A. G., Lei, X., Borst, J., Steenwijk, E. C., de Wit, T., Grabowska, J., Voogd, R., Kemps, P. G., Picarsic, J., van den Bos, C., & Borst, J. (n.d.). Bone marrow-derived myeloid progenitors as driver mutation carriers in high- and low-risk Langerhans cell histiocytosis. Blood. https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2020005209 Cite
Human alveolar epithelial A549 cells were cultured for 24 hours in conditioned media of THP-1 monocyte-derived macrophages with 1–20 μM aesculetin.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Scientists report on a systems-level blood immunomonitoring study of 37 adult patients diagnosed with COVID-19 and followed with up to 14 blood samples from acute to recovery phases of the disease.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
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Rodriguez, L., Pekkarinen, P. T., Lakshmikanth, T., Tan, Z., Consiglio, C. R., Pou, C., Chen, Y., Mugabo, C. H., Nguyen, N. A., Nowlan, K., Strandin, T., Levanov, L., Mikes, J., Wang, J., Kantele, A., Hepojoki, J., Vapalahti, O., Heinonen, S., Kekäläinen, E., & Brodin, P. (2020). Systems-level immunomonitoring from acute to recovery phase of severe COVID-19. Cell Reports Medicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2020.100078 Cite
Investigators demonstrated that intestinal G protein-coupled receptor 35 (Gpr35) expression was microbiota dependent and enhanced upon inflammation. Moreover, murine GPR35+ colonic macrophages were characterized by enhanced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
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Kaya, B., Doñas, C., Wuggenig, P., Diaz, O. E., Morales, R. A., Melhem, H., Hernández, P. P., Kaymak, T., Das, S., Hruz, P., Franc, Y., Geier, F., Ayata, C. K., Villablanca, E. J., & Niess, J. H. (2020). Lysophosphatidic Acid-Mediated GPR35 Signaling in CX3CR1+ Macrophages Regulates Intestinal Homeostasis. Cell Reports, 32(5). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.107979 Cite
Newly infiltrated inflammatory monocytes became a chief pool of phagocytes and played a key role in the clearance of highly motile apoptotic neutrophils during the resolution phase.
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Young adult mice were submitted to endurance exercise training and the function, differentiation, and metabolic characteristics of satellite cells were investigated in vivo and in vitro.
[Journal of Cachexia Sarcopenia and Muscle]
M1 and M2 macrophage viability and activation were mainly found to be unaffected by few‐layer graphene and MoS2 at doses up to 50 µg mL−1.
Scientists report that IL10, but not IL6 signaling, induced formation of a complex between STAT3 and the inositol polyphosphate-5-phosphatase SHIP1 in macrophages.
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Chamberlain, T. C., Cheung, S. T., Yoon, J. S. J., Ming-Lum, A., Gardill, B. R., Shakibakho, S., Dzananovic, E., Ban, F., Samiea, A., Jawanda, K., Priatel, J., Krystal, G., Ong, C. J., Cherkasov, A., Andersen, R. J., McKenna, S. A., Petegem, F. V., & Mui, A. L.-F. (2020). Interleukin-10 and Small Molecule SHIP1 Allosteric Regulators Trigger Anti-Inflammatory Effects Through SHIP1/STAT3 Complexes. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101433 Cite
Scientists investigated the epigenetic regulation of promoters and gene bodies and their effect on the tumor microenvironment composition of cutaneous malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors and spindle cell melanomas.
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