Identification of an Endogenous Glutamatergic Transmitter System Controlling Excitability and Conductivity of Atrial Cardiomyocytes

Researchers reveal an intrinsic glutamatergic transmitter system directly modulating excitability and conductivity of atrial cardiomyocytes through controlling ionotropic glutamate receptor-gated currents.
[Cell Research]
Xie, D., Xiong, K., Su, X., Wang, G., Ji, Q., Zou, Q., Wang, L., Liu, Y., Liang, D., Xue, J., Wang, L., Gao, X., Gu, X., Liu, H., He, X., Li, L., Yang, J., Lu, Y., Peng, L., & Chen, Y.-H. (2021). Identification of an endogenous glutamatergic transmitter system controlling excitability and conductivity of atrial cardiomyocytes. Cell Research, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00499-5 Cite
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Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase (ALDH2) Rescues Cardiac Contractile Dysfunction in an APP/PS1 Murine Model of Alzheimer’s Disease via Inhibition of ACSL4-Dependent Ferroptosis

In cardiomyocytes isolated from WT mice and in H9C2 myoblasts in vitro, application of Aβ (20 μM) decreased cell survival, compromised cardiomyocyte contractile function, and induced lipid peroxidation; ALDH2 transgene or activator Alda-1 rescued Aβ-induced deteriorating effects.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Zhu, Z., Liu, Y., Gong, Y., Jin, W., Topchiy, E., Turdi, S., Gao, Y., Culver, B., Wang, S., Ge, W., Zha, W., Ren, J., Pei, Z., & Qin, X. (2021). Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) rescues cardiac contractile dysfunction in an APP/PS1 murine model of Alzheimer’s disease via inhibition of ACSL4-dependent ferroptosis. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-021-00635-2 Cite
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The Vital Roles of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Derived Extracellular Vesicles in Promoting Angiogenesis after Acute Myocardial Infarction

Scientists highlight potential pro-angiogenic mechanisms of transplanted MSCs and the derived EVs after acute myocardial infarction and summarize the latest literature concerning the novel methods based on MSCs to maximize the angiogenesis capability.
[Stem Cells and Development]
Zhang, L.-L., Xiong, Y.-Y., & Yang, Y.-J. (2021). The vital roles of mesenchymal stem cells and the derived extracellular vesicles in promoting angiogenesis after acute myocardial infarction. Stem Cells and Development. https://doi.org/10.1089/scd.2021.0006 Cite
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Cytotoxic CD8+ T Cells Promote Granzyme B-Dependent Adverse Post-ischemic Cardiac Remodeling

The authors showed that following acute myocardial infarction in mice, CD8+ T lymphocytes are recruited and activated in the ischemic heart tissue and release Granzyme B, leading to cardiomyocyte apoptosis, adverse ventricular remodeling and deterioration of myocardial function.
[Nature Communications]
Santos-Zas, I., Lemarié, J., Zlatanova, I., Cachanado, M., Seghezzi, J.-C., Benamer, H., Goube, P., Vandestienne, M., Cohen, R., Ezzo, M., Duval, V., Zhang, Y., Su, J.-B., Bizé, A., Sambin, L., Bonnin, P., Branchereau, M., Heymes, C., Tanchot, C., … Ait-Oufella, H. (2021). Cytotoxic CD8 + T cells promote granzyme B-dependent adverse post-ischemic cardiac remodeling. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1483. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21737-9 Cite
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Injectable Hydrogel with MSNs/microRNA-21-5p Delivery Enables Both Immunomodification and Enhanced Angiogenesis for Myocardial Infarction Therapy in Pigs

Scientists developed a microRNA-21-5p delivery system using functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles with additional intrinsic therapeutic effects.
[Science Advances]
Li, Y., Chen, X., Jin, R., Chen, L., Dang, M., Cao, H., Dong, Y., Cai, B., Bai, G., Gooding, J. J., Liu, S., Zou, D., Zhang, Z., & Yang, C. (2021). Injectable hydrogel with MSNs/microRNA-21-5p delivery enables both immunomodification and enhanced angiogenesis for myocardial infarction therapy in pigs. Science Advances, 7(9), eabd6740. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abd6740 Cite
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IP3R1 Regulates Ca2+ Transport and Pyroptosis through the NLRP3/Caspase-1 Pathway in Myocardial Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury

The adult rat cardiomyocytes were isolated and cultured to establish hypoxia/reperfusion (H/R) cell model. The expression of IP3R1 was downregulated or ERP44 was overexpressed in H/R-induced cells.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Pathogenic LMNA Variants Disrupt Cardiac Lamina-Chromatin Interactions and De-Repress Alternative Fate Genes

Researchers introduced LMNA mutations from individuals with dilated cardiomyopathy into human (h)iPSCs and found that hiPSC-derived cardiomyocytes, in contrast to hepatocytes or adipocytes, exhibited aberrant nuclear morphology and specific disruptions in peripheral chromatin.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Shah, P. P., Lv, W., Rhoades, J. H., Poleshko, A., Abbey, D., Caporizzo, M. A., Linares-Saldana, R., Heffler, J. G., Sayed, N., Thomas, D., Wang, Q., Stanton, L. J., Bedi, K., Morley, M. P., Cappola, T. P., Owens, A. T., Margulies, K. B., Frank, D. B., Wu, J. C., … Jain, R. (2021). Pathogenic LMNA variants disrupt cardiac lamina-chromatin interactions and de-repress alternative fate genes. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.12.016 Cite
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Considerations for the Bioengineering of Advanced Cardiac In Vitro Models of Myocardial Infarction

Scientists highlight the major features typical of a heart attack while comparing current in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo models. This information has the potential to further guide in developing novel advanced in vitro cardiac models of ischemia/reperfusion injury.
[Small]
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Cardiac Telocytes Inhibit Cardiac Microvascular Endothelial Cell Apoptosis through Exosomal miRNA-21-5p-Targeted cdip1 Silencing to Improve Angiogenesis following Myocardial Infarction

Investigators showed that cardiac telocytes (CTs) inhibited cardiac microvascular endothelial cell apoptosis through exosomal miRNA-21-5p-targeted cell death inducing p53 target 1 silencing to improve angiogenesis in myocardial infarction.
[Theranostics]
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Matrix Stiffness Regulates Myocardial Differentiation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Human umbilical cord-MSCs were cultured on polyacrylamide hydrogels with stiffnesses corresponding to Young’s modulus of 13-16kPa and 62-68kPa which mimic the stiffnesses of healthy heart tissue and fibrotic myocardium.
[Aging]
Aging | Matrix stiffness regulates myocardial differentiation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells - Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved December 16, 2020, from https://www.aging-us.com/article/202244/text Cite
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DUSP5 Expression in Left Ventricular Cardiomyocytes of Young Hearts Regulates Thyroid Hormone (T3)-Induced Proliferative ERK1/2 Signaling

Investigators showed that T3 increased the cardiomyocyte endowment of P8 hearts, but the proliferative response was confined to cardiomyocytes of the left ventricular apex.
[Scientific Reports]
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