Microglia Promote Glioblastoma via mTOR-Mediated Immunosuppression of the Tumor Microenvironment

Investigators showed that glioblastoma (GBM)‐initiating cells induced mTOR signaling in the microglia but not bone marrow‐derived macrophages in both in vitro and in vivo GBM mouse models.
[Embo Journal]
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BCALM (AC099524.1) Is a Human B Lymphocyte-Specific Long Noncoding RNA That Modulates B Cell Receptor–Mediated Calcium Signaling

lncRNA interactome, RNA immunoprecipitation, and coimmunoprecipitation studies identified BCR-mediated Ca+ signaling (BCALM)-interacting proteins in B cells, including phospholipase D 1, and kinase adaptor proteins AKAP9 and AKAP13.
[Journal of Immunology]
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Identification of Novel Genes Associated with Dysregulation of B Cells in Patients with Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome

The authors identified the molecular mechanism of dysregulation of B cell subpopulations of primary Sjögren’s syndrome at the transcriptome level.
[Arthritis Research & Therapy]
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Vagus Nerve Stimulation Even after Injury Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephropathy via Reducing Macrophage Infiltration

To explore the role of the spleen and splenic macrophages, key players in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, splenectomy, and adoptive transfer of macrophages treated with the selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist GTS-21 were conducted.
[Scientific Reports]
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The Pericyte Connectome: Spatial Precision of Neurovascular Coupling Is Driven by Selective Connectivity Maps of Pericytes and Endothelial Cells and Is Disrupted in Diabetes

Pericytes connected predominantly to other neighboring pericytes and endothelial cells, and less to arteriolar smooth muscle cells, and not to surrounding neurons or glia.
[Cell Discovery]
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In Vitro Differentiated Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Reproduce Synaptic Synchronicity Arising during Neurodevelopment

Scientists generated human iPSC-derived neurons exhibiting spontaneous oscillatory activity after cultivation of up to six months, which resembled early oscillations observed in rodent neurons. This behavior was found in neurons generated using a more “native” embryoid body protocol, in contrast to a “fast” protocol based on NGN2 overexpression.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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Hypoxia-Preconditioned Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Rescue Optic Nerve Axons via Differential Roles of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor in an Optic Nerve Compression Animal Model

Scientists established a hypoxia-preconditioned strain using a hypoxic chamber. The human placenta–derived stem cells were exposed to short-term hypoxic conditions of 2.2% O2 and 5.5% CO2.
[Molecular Neurobiology]
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Cross Talk between Mesenchymal and Glioblastoma Stem Cells: Communication beyond Controversies

The authors discuss recent findings on the complex nature of MSCs, focusing on their elusive impact on glioblastoma progression and aggressiveness by direct cell‐cell interaction and via secretome, also facing the perspectives and challenges in treatment strategies.
[Stem Cells Translational Medicine]
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Toxoplasma gondii Infection Impairs Radial Glia Differentiation and Its Potential to Modulate Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cell Function in the Cerebral Cortex

Conditioned medium (CM) from Radial Glia (RG) control cultures increased ZO-1 protein levels and organization on endothelial bEnd.3 cells membranes, which was impaired by CM from infected RG, accompanied by decreased trans-endothelial electrical resistance.
[Microvascular Research]
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Pneumonia-Induced Endothelial Amyloids Reduce Dendritic Spine Density in Brain Neurons

Researchers used electrophysiological studies in brain slices and structural analysis of post-mortem tissues obtained from animals exposed to endothelium-derived amyloids. The amyloids were administered via three different routes, by intracerebroventricular, intratracheal, and intraperitoneal injections.
[Scientific Reports]
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Neural Metabolic Imbalance Induced by MOF Dysfunction Triggers Pericyte Activation and Breakdown of Vasculature

The authors showed that neural-specific depletion of three members of the non-specific lethal chromatin complex—Mof, Kansl2 or Kansl3—unexpectedly led to severe vascular defects and brain hemorrhaging.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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