Gene Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Targeting CD33 Reduces Amyloid Beta Accumulation and Neuroinflammation.

Researchers tested whether a gene therapy strategy to reduce Siglec-3 (CD33) on microglia in Alzheimer’s disease could decrease amyloid beta plaque load.
[Human Molecular Genetics]
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2-Nitroimidazoles Induce Mitochondrial Stress and Ferroptosis in Glioma Stem Cells Residing in a Hypoxic Niche

Investigators showed that the 2-nitroimidazole doranidazole potentiated radiation-induced DNA damage in hypoxic glioma stem cells (GSCs) and conferred a significant survival benefit in mice harboring GSC-derived tumors in radiotherapy settings.
[Communications Biology]
Koike, N., Kota, R., Naito, Y., Hayakawa, N., Matsuura, T., Hishiki, T., Onishi, N., Fukada, J., Suematsu, M., Shigematsu, N., Saya, H., & Sampetrean, O. (2020). 2-Nitroimidazoles induce mitochondrial stress and ferroptosis in glioma stem cells residing in a hypoxic niche. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01165-z Cite
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Design and Validation of Liposomal ApoE2 Gene Delivery System to Evade Blood-Brain Barrier for Effective Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Researchers demonstrated efficient brain-targeted delivery of apolipoprotein E 2 (ApoE2) encoding plasmid DNA using glucose transporter-1 targeted liposomes.
[Molecular Pharmaceutics]
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Ybx1 Fine-Tunes PRC2 Activities to Control Embryonic Brain Development

Scientists found that Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) interacted with the nucleic acid–binding protein Ybx1. In neural progenitor cells, Ybx1 controlled self-renewal and neuronal differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
Evans, M. K., Matsui, Y., Xu, B., Willis, C., Loome, J., Milburn, L., Fan, Y., Pagala, V., & Peng, J. C. (2020). Ybx1 fine-tunes PRC2 activities to control embryonic brain development. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4060. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17878-y Cite
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Dscam1 Establishes the Columnar Units through Lineage-Dependent Repulsion between Sister Neurons in the Fly Brain

Researchers showed that neurons from the same lineage project to different columns under control of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule in the fly brain.
[Nature Communications]
Liu, C., Trush, O., Han, X., Wang, M., Takayama, R., Yasugi, T., Hayashi, T., & Sato, M. (2020). Dscam1 establishes the columnar units through lineage-dependent repulsion between sister neurons in the fly brain. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4067. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17931-w Cite
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Overexposure to Apoptosis via Disrupted Glial Specification Perturbs Drosophila Macrophage Function and Reveals Roles of the CNS during Injury

The authors sought to understand how apoptotic cells affect macrophage function in the context of a genetically tractable Drosophila model in which macrophages encountered excessive amounts of apoptotic cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Origin of the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Affects Their Differentiation into Dopaminergic Neurons

During 3D organoid formation, the origin of iPSCs affected the levels of FOXA2 and LMX1A only in the first stages of neural differentiation, whereas in the 2D model, differences were detected at the levels of both early and late neural markers.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Origin of the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Affects Their Differentiation into Dopaminergic Neurons | HTML. (n.d.). Retrieved August 13, 2020, from https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/16/5705/htm Cite
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Flavagline Synthetic Derivative Induces Senescence in Glioblastoma Cancer Cells without Being Toxic to Healthy Astrocytes

Investigators explored the effect of FL3 in glioblastoma cells under normoxia and hypoxia conditions. They indicated that this synthetic flavagline inhibits cell proliferation and induced senescence in glioblastoma cells cultured under both conditions.
[Scientific Reports]
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Developmental Changes in the Accessible Chromatin, Transcriptome and Ascl1-Binding Correlate with the Loss in Müller Glial Regenerative Potential

Researchers demonstrated developmental differences in gene expression and accessible chromatin between progenitors and Müller glia (MG), primarily in neurogenic genes. Overexpression of Ascl1 was more effective in reprogramming immature MG, than mature MG, consistent with a more progenitor-like epigenetic landscape in the former.
[Scientific Reports]
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In Vitro Modeling for Inherited Neurological Diseases Using Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: From 2D to Organoid

Researchers focus on stem cell-based in vitro modeling of neurodevelopmental disorders, more specifically, the fundamentals and technical advancements in monolayer neuron and brain organoid cultures.
[Archives of Pharmacal Research]
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EGFR/FOXO3a/BIM Signaling Pathway Determines Chemosensitivity of BMP4-Differentiated Glioma Stem Cells to Temozolomide

Scientists examined whether epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling affects bone morphogenic protein 4-induced differentiation of glioma stem cells and their response to the alkylating drug temozolomide.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Ciechomska, I. A., Gielniewski, B., Wojtas, B., Kaminska, B., & Mieczkowski, J. (2020). EGFR/FOXO3a/BIM signaling pathway determines chemosensitivity of BMP4-differentiated glioma stem cells to temozolomide. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-0479-9 Cite
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