Gene Expression and Functional Deficits Underlie TREM2-Knockout Microglia Responses in Human Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

Scientists profiled microglia differentiated from isogenic, CRISPR-modified TREM2-knockout induced pluripotent stem cell lines.
[Nature Communications]
Gene expression and functional deficits underlie TREM2-knockout microglia responses in human models of Alzheimer’s disease | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19227-5 Cite
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Generation of Oligodendrocytes and Establishment of an All-Human Myelinating Platform From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers describe a method to generate oligodendrocyte precursor cells from human pluripotent stem cells in only ~20 days, which could subsequently myelinate neurons, both in vitro and in vivo.
[Nature Protocols]
García-León, J. A., García-Díaz, B., Eggermont, K., Cáceres-Palomo, L., Neyrinck, K., Madeiro da Costa, R., Dávila, J. C., Baron-Van Evercooren, A., Gutiérrez, A., & Verfaillie, C. M. (2020). Generation of oligodendrocytes and establishment of an all-human myelinating platform from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Protocols, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-0395-4 Cite
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Activated Microglia Cause Metabolic Disruptions in Developmental Cortical Interneurons That Persist in Interneurons From Individuals With Schizophrenia

Researchers generated developmental cortical interneurons — which are known to be affected in schizophrenia when matured — from induced pluripotent stem cells derived from healthy controls and individuals with schizophrenia and co-cultured them with or without activated microglia.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Activated microglia cause metabolic disruptions in developmental cortical interneurons that persist in interneurons from individuals with schizophrenia | Nature Neuroscience. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41593-020-00724-1 Cite
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Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection Leads to Neurodevelopmental Disorder-Associated Neuropathological Changes

Researchers generated in vitro neurodevelopmental disorder models including human induced pluripotent stem cell based monolayer neuronal differentiation, 3D neuroepithelial bud, and 3D cerebral organoid to study fetal brain development and the potential neuropathological effects induced by the HSV-1 infections.
[Plos Pathogens]
Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection leads to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated neuropathological changes. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008899 Cite
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Substance P Release by Sensory Neurons Triggers Dendritic Cell Migration and Initiates the Type-2 Immune Response to Allergens

Using a model of cutaneous allergen exposure, investigators showed that allergens directly activated TRPV1+ sensory neurons leading to itch and pain behaviors.
[Immunity]
Perner, C., Flayer, C. H., Zhu, X., Aderhold, P. A., Dewan, Z. N. A., Voisin, T., Camire, R. B., Chow, O. A., Chiu, I. M., & Sokol, C. L. (2020). Substance P Release by Sensory Neurons Triggers Dendritic Cell Migration and Initiates the Type-2 Immune Response to Allergens. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.001 Cite
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Emerging Microglia Biology Defines Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Alzheimer’s Disease

The authors discuss how the recently defined functions of these Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk genes can be targeted therapeutically to modulate microglial cell state and slow the progression of AD.
[Neuron]
Lewcock, J. W., Schlepckow, K., Paolo, G. D., Tahirovic, S., Monroe, K. M., & Haass, C. (2020). Emerging Microglia Biology Defines Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.09.029 Cite
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Quick Commitment and Efficient Reprogramming Route of Direct Induction of Retinal Ganglion Cell-like Neurons

Scientists showed that three transcription factors, Ascl1, Brn3b, and Isl1, efficiently converted fibroblasts into RGC-like neurons (iRGCs). The competence of cells to enter iRGC reprogramming route was determined by the cell-cycle status at a very early stage of the process.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Wang, J., He, Q., Zhang, K., Sun, H., Zhang, G., Liang, H., Guo, J., Hao, L., Ke, J., & Chen, S. (2020). Quick Commitment and Efficient Reprogramming Route of Direct Induction of Retinal Ganglion Cell-like Neurons. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.008 Cite
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Catalent and BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Announce Partnership for the Manufacture of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Platform Therapy NurOwn®

Catalent and BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics, Inc announced an agreement for the manufacture of NurOwn®, BrainStorm’s autologous cellular therapy being investigated for the treatment of ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease or motor neuron disease.
[Catalent]
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Development and Application of High-Throughput Single Cell Lipid Profiling: A Study of SNCA-A53T Human Dopamine Neurons

The authors identified and isolated human iPSC-dopamine neurons with a TH-RFP reporter. Using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry they developed a high-throughput method for untargeted single cell lipid profiling.
[iScience]
Snowden, S. G., Fernandes, H. J. R., Kent, J., Foskolou, S., Tate, P., Field, S. F., Metzakopian, E., & Koulman, A. (2020). Development and application of high-throughput single cell lipid profiling: a study of SNCA-A53T human dopamine neurons. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101703 Cite
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Transport of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles (2 nm) across the Blood–Brain Barrier in a Six-Cell Brain Spheroid Model

The spheroids used were composed of six brain cell types: Astrocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, microglia cells, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. They formed an in vitro blood brain barrier that regulated the transport of compounds into the spheroid.
[Scientific Reports]
Sokolova, V., Mekky, G., van der Meer, S. B., Seeds, M. C., Atala, A. J., & Epple, M. (2020). Transport of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (2 nm) across the blood–brain barrier in a six-cell brain spheroid model. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18033. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75125-2 Cite
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When Glia Meet Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)

Investigators summarize the basic characteristics of glial cells, with the focus on their classical functions, heterogeneity, and uniqueness in human species. They further review the findings from recent studies that use iPSC-derived glial cells for central nervous system disease modeling.
[Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience]
Li, L., & Shi, Y. (2020). When Glia Meet Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs). Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, 103565. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcn.2020.103565 Cite
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