The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Neuronal Signaling: from Neurodevelopment to Neurodegeneration

A highly pleiotropic and context-dependent nature of Pin1 functional activity, strictly dependent on the phosphorylation patterns of its cellular targets, clearly emerges. In the nervous system, Pin1 is fundamental both for embryonic development and cellular homeostasis in adult neurons, due to its role as regulator of cell death and survival.
[Molecular Neurobiology]
Fagiani, F., Govoni, S., Racchi, M., & Lanni, C. (2020). The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Neuronal Signaling: from Neurodevelopment to Neurodegeneration. Molecular Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02179-8 Cite
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Reduced EGFR and Increased miR-221 Is Associated with Increased Resistance to Temozolomide and Radiotherapy in Glioblastoma

Researchers explored the underlying mechanisms behind treatment resistance and the lack of success with anti-EGFR therapy in the clinic. After generating a number of treatment resistant Glioblastoma cell lines they observed that resistant cell lines lacked EGFR activation and expression.
[Scientific Reports]
Areeb, Z., Stuart, S. F., West, A. J., Gomez, J., Nguyen, H. P. T., Paradiso, L., Zulkifli, A., Jones, J., Kaye, A. H., Morokoff, A. P., & Luwor, R. B. (2020). Reduced EGFR and increased miR-221 is associated with increased resistance to temozolomide and radiotherapy in glioblastoma. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17768. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74746-x Cite
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CMTR1-Catalyzed 2′-O-Ribose Methylation Controls Neuronal Development by Regulating Camk2α Expression Independent of RIG-I Signaling

Researchers found that knockdown of CMTR1 impaired dendrite development independent of secretory cytokines and RIG-I signaling.
[Cell Reports]
Lee, Y.-L., Kung, F.-C., Lin, C.-H., & Huang, Y.-S. (2020). CMTR1-Catalyzed 2′-O-Ribose Methylation Controls Neuronal Development by Regulating Camk2α Expression Independent of RIG-I Signaling. Cell Reports, 33(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108269 Cite
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Siah2 Integrates Mitogenic and Extracellular Matrix Signals Linking Neuronal Progenitor Ciliogenesis with Germinal Zone Occupancy

Researchers determined that the Siah2 E3 ubiquitin ligase functions in a coincidence detection circuit linking responses to the Shh mitogen and the ECM to control cerebellar granule neurons germinal zone occupancy.
[Nature Communications]
Ong, T., Trivedi, N., Wakefield, R., Frase, S., & Solecki, D. J. (2020). Siah2 integrates mitogenic and extracellular matrix signals linking neuronal progenitor ciliogenesis with germinal zone occupancy. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5312. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19063-7 Cite
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Modeling the Interaction between the Microenvironment and Tumor Cells in Brain Tumors

The authors focus on brain microenvironment features impacted by tumor biology. They also discuss limits of current preclinical models and how complementary models, such as humanized animals and organoids, will allow deeper mechanistic insights on cancer biology, allowing for more efficient testing of therapeutic strategies, including immunotherapy, for brain cancers.
[Neuron]
Pasqualini, C., Kozaki, T., Bruschi, M., Nguyen, T. H. H., Minard-Colin, V., Castel, D., Grill, J., & Ginhoux, F. (2020). Modeling the Interaction between the Microenvironment and Tumor Cells in Brain Tumors. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.09.018 Cite
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Functional Diversification of SRSF Protein Kinase to Control Ubiquitin-Dependent Neurodevelopmental Signaling

Scientists investigated the expression and function of SRPK family members in human pluripotent stem cells and the brain. SRPK1, SRPK2, and RNF12 were expressed in human iPSCs, and quantitative total proteomic analysis confirmed the expression of these components and REX1.
[Developmental Cell]
Bustos, F., Segarra-Fas, A., Nardocci, G., Cassidy, A., Antico, O., Davidson, L., Brandenburg, L., Macartney, T. J., Toth, R., Hastie, C. J., Moran, J., Gourlay, R., Varghese, J., Soares, R. F., Montecino, M., & Findlay, G. M. (2020). Functional Diversification of SRSF Protein Kinase to Control Ubiquitin-Dependent Neurodevelopmental Signaling. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.09.025 Cite
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Endothelial, Pericyte and Tumor Cell Expression in Glioblastoma Identifies Fibroblast Activation Protein (FAP) as an Excellent Target for Immunotherapy

Short‐term cultures of glioma neural stem cells were compared to cultures of healthy astrocytes and neurons using flow cytometry. Glioblastoma tissues were dissociated and analysed by high‐parameter flow cytometry and single‐cell transcriptomics.
[Clinical & Translational Immunology]
Endothelial, pericyte and tumor cell expression in glioblastoma identifies fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as an excellent target for immunotherapy - Ebert - 2020 - Clinical & Translational Immunology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cti2.1191 Cite
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Novel Carbon Film Induces Precocious Calcium Oscillation to Promote Neuronal Cell Maturation

Investigators tested the capacity of a carbon material composed of amorphous sp3 carbon backbone, embedded with a percolating network of sp2 carbon domains to sustain neuronal cultures. They found that cortical neurons survive and develop faster on this novel carbon material.
[Scientific Reports]
Ludwig, A., Kesaf, S., Heikkinen, J. J., Sukhanova, T., Khakipoor, S., Molinari, F., Pellegrino, C., Kim, S. I., Han, J. G., Huttunen, H. J., Lauri, S. E., Franssila, S., Jokinen, V., & Rivera, C. (2020). Novel carbon film induces precocious calcium oscillation to promote neuronal cell maturation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17661. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74535-6 Cite
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Tenascin C Promotes Cancer Cell Plasticity in Mesenchymal Glioblastoma

Researchers identified Tenascin C (TNC) to be upregulated and secreted in mesenchymal glioblastoma subtype with high NF-κB signaling activity. Silencing TNC decreased proliferation, migration and suppresses self-renewal of glioma stem cells.
[Oncogene]
Angel, I., Pilo Kerman, O., Rousso-Noori, L., & Friedmann-Morvinski, D. (2020). Tenascin C promotes cancer cell plasticity in mesenchymal glioblastoma. Oncogene, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01506-6 Cite
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Effect of Cell Spreading on Rosette Formation by Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells

The authors report a protocol that efficiently induced near synchronous rosette organization, even from human PSC-derived neural progenitor cell monolayers that do not generally exhibit rosette formation using previously existing protocols.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
Townshend, R. F., Shao, Y., Wang, S., Cortez, C. L., Esfahani, S. N., Spence, J. R., O’Shea, K. S., Fu, J., Gumucio, D. L., & Taniguchi, K. (2020). Effect of Cell Spreading on Rosette Formation by Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.588941 Cite
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Potential Ethical Problems with Human Cerebral Organoids: Consciousness and Moral Status of Future Brains in a Dish

The author discusses the conditions under which human cerebral organoids could require the acknowledgment of their own moral status.
[Brain Research]
Lavazza, A. (2020). Potential Ethical Problems with Human Cerebral Organoids: Consciousness and Moral Status of Future Brains in a Dish. Brain Research, 147146. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2020.147146 Cite
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