Transcriptional Reprogramming of Distinct Peripheral Sensory Neuron Subtypes after Axonal Injury

By profiling sensory ganglia at single-cell resolution, researchers found that all somatosensory neuronal subtypes underwent a similar transcriptional response to peripheral nerve injury that both promoted axonal regeneration and suppressed cell identity.
[Neuron]
Renthal, W., Tochitsky, I., Yang, L., Cheng, Y.-C., Li, E., Kawaguchi, R., Geschwind, D. H., & Woolf, C. J. (2020). Transcriptional Reprogramming of Distinct Peripheral Sensory Neuron Subtypes after Axonal Injury. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.07.026 Cite
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Mitochondrial Dynamics in Postmitotic Cells Regulate Neurogenesis

Scientists revealed that shortly after cortical stem cells have divided, daughter cells destined to self-renew underwent mitochondrial fusion, whereas those that retained high levels of mitochondria fission became neurons.
[Science]
Iwata, R., Casimir, P., & Vanderhaeghen, P. (2020). Mitochondrial dynamics in postmitotic cells regulate neurogenesis. Science, 369(6505), 858–862. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aba9760 Cite
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Importin α3 Regulates Chronic Pain Pathways in Peripheral Sensory Neurons

Importin α3–bound c-Fos and importin α3–deficient neurons were impaired in c-Fos nuclear import. Knockdown or dominant-negative inhibition of c-Fos or c-Jun in sensory neurons reduced neuropathic pain.
[Science]
Marvaldi, L., Panayotis, N., Alber, S., Dagan, S. Y., Okladnikov, N., Koppel, I., Pizio, A. D., Song, D.-A., Tzur, Y., Terenzio, M., Rishal, I., Gordon, D., Rother, F., Hartmann, E., Bader, M., & Fainzilber, M. (2020). Importin α3 regulates chronic pain pathways in peripheral sensory neurons. Science, 369(6505), 842–846. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aaz5875 Cite
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The Role of Astrocytes in CNS Inflammation

Scientists provide an overview of the role of astrocytes in CNS inflammation, highlighting recent discoveries on astrocyte subsets and the mechanisms that control them.
[Trends in Immunology]
Giovannoni, F., & Quintana, F. J. (2020). The Role of Astrocytes in CNS Inflammation. Trends in Immunology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.it.2020.07.007 Cite
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Gene Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease Targeting CD33 Reduces Amyloid Beta Accumulation and Neuroinflammation.

Researchers tested whether a gene therapy strategy to reduce Siglec-3 (CD33) on microglia in Alzheimer’s disease could decrease amyloid beta plaque load.
[Human Molecular Genetics]
Griciuc, A., Federico, A. N., Natasan, J., Forte, A. M., McGinty, D., Nguyen, H., Volak, A., LeRoy, S., Gandhi, S., Lerner, E. P., Hudry, E., Tanzi, R. E., & Maguire, C. A. (n.d.). Gene therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease targeting CD33 reduces amyloid beta accumulation and neuroinflammation. Human Molecular Genetics. https://doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddaa179 Cite
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2-Nitroimidazoles Induce Mitochondrial Stress and Ferroptosis in Glioma Stem Cells Residing in a Hypoxic Niche

Investigators showed that the 2-nitroimidazole doranidazole potentiated radiation-induced DNA damage in hypoxic glioma stem cells (GSCs) and conferred a significant survival benefit in mice harboring GSC-derived tumors in radiotherapy settings.
[Communications Biology]
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Design and Validation of Liposomal ApoE2 Gene Delivery System to Evade Blood-Brain Barrier for Effective Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease

Researchers demonstrated efficient brain-targeted delivery of apolipoprotein E 2 (ApoE2) encoding plasmid DNA using glucose transporter-1 targeted liposomes.
[Molecular Pharmaceutics]
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Ybx1 Fine-Tunes PRC2 Activities to Control Embryonic Brain Development

Scientists found that Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) interacted with the nucleic acid–binding protein Ybx1. In neural progenitor cells, Ybx1 controlled self-renewal and neuronal differentiation.
[Nature Communications]
Evans, M. K., Matsui, Y., Xu, B., Willis, C., Loome, J., Milburn, L., Fan, Y., Pagala, V., & Peng, J. C. (2020). Ybx1 fine-tunes PRC2 activities to control embryonic brain development. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4060. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17878-y Cite
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Dscam1 Establishes the Columnar Units through Lineage-Dependent Repulsion between Sister Neurons in the Fly Brain

Researchers showed that neurons from the same lineage project to different columns under control of Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule in the fly brain.
[Nature Communications]
Liu, C., Trush, O., Han, X., Wang, M., Takayama, R., Yasugi, T., Hayashi, T., & Sato, M. (2020). Dscam1 establishes the columnar units through lineage-dependent repulsion between sister neurons in the fly brain. Nature Communications, 11(1), 4067. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17931-w Cite
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Overexposure to Apoptosis via Disrupted Glial Specification Perturbs Drosophila Macrophage Function and Reveals Roles of the CNS during Injury

The authors sought to understand how apoptotic cells affect macrophage function in the context of a genetically tractable Drosophila model in which macrophages encountered excessive amounts of apoptotic cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Origin of the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Affects Their Differentiation into Dopaminergic Neurons

During 3D organoid formation, the origin of iPSCs affected the levels of FOXA2 and LMX1A only in the first stages of neural differentiation, whereas in the 2D model, differences were detected at the levels of both early and late neural markers.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Origin of the Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Affects Their Differentiation into Dopaminergic Neurons | HTML. (n.d.). Retrieved August 13, 2020, from https://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/21/16/5705/htm Cite
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