GSK3ß Inhibitor CHIR 99021 Modulates Cerebral Organoid Development through Dose-Dependent Regulation of Apoptosis, Proliferation, Differentiation and Migration

The authors demonstrated that while low dose of GSK3β inhibitor CHIR 99021 increases organoid size, higher dose actually reduced organoid size; with the highest dose arresting organoid growth.
[PLoS One]
Delepine, C., Pham, V. A., Tsang, H. W. S., & Sur, M. (2021). GSK3ß inhibitor CHIR 99021 modulates cerebral organoid development through dose-dependent regulation of apoptosis, proliferation, differentiation and migration. PLOS ONE, 16(5), e0251173. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0251173 Cite
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Design and Evaluation of an In Vitro Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Modeling System Using 3D Printed Mini Impact Device on the 3D Cultured Human iPSC Derived Neural Progenitor Cells

Researchers report an in vitro mild traumatic brain injury modeling system based on 3D cultured human iPSC derived neural progenitor cells to evaluate consequences of single and repetitive mild traumatic brain injury using a 3D printed mini weight‐drop impact device.
[Advanced Healthcare Materials]
Shi, W., Dong, P., Kuss, M. A., Gu, L., Kievit, F., Kim, H. J., & Duan, B. (n.d.). Design and Evaluation of an In Vitro Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Modeling System Using 3D Printed Mini Impact Device on the 3D Cultured Human iPSC Derived Neural Progenitor Cells. Advanced Healthcare Materials, n/a(n/a), 2100180. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/adhm.202100180 Cite
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Altered Network and Rescue of Human Neurons Derived from Individuals with Early-Onset Genetic Epilepsy

Induced pluripotent stem cells derived from individuals deficient in CDKL5 protein were used to generate neural cells. Proteomic and phosphoproteomic approaches revealed disruption of several pathways, including microtubule-based processes and cytoskeleton organization.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Negraes, P. D., Trujillo, C. A., Yu, N.-K., Wu, W., Yao, H., Liang, N., Lautz, J. D., Kwok, E., McClatchy, D., Diedrich, J., de Bartolome, S. M., Truong, J., Szeto, R., Tran, T., Herai, R. H., Smith, S. E. P., Haddad, G. G., Yates, J. R., & Muotri, A. R. (2021). Altered network and rescue of human neurons derived from individuals with early-onset genetic epilepsy. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–22. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01104-2 Cite
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Brain Cells Derived from Alzheimer’s Disease Patients Have Multiple Specific Innate Abnormalities in Energy Metabolism

Researchers report that neural progenitor cells and astrocytes differentiated from late-onset Alzheimer’s disease patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells exhibited multiple inter-related bioenergetic alterations.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Ryu, W.-I., Bormann, M. K., Shen, M., Kim, D., Forester, B., Park, Y., So, J., Seo, H., Sonntag, K.-C., & Cohen, B. M. (2021). Brain cells derived from Alzheimer’s disease patients have multiple specific innate abnormalities in energy metabolism. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-021-01068-3 Cite
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Cell-Type-Specific Profiling of Human Cellular Models of Fragile X Syndrome Reveal PI3K-Dependent Defects in Translation and Neurogenesis

Scientists used human patient induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural progenitor cells and organoids to model neurogenesis in fragile X syndrome.
[Cell Reports]
Raj, N., McEachin, Z. T., Harousseau, W., Zhou, Y., Zhang, F., Merritt-Garza, M. E., Taliaferro, J. M., Kalinowska, M., Marro, S. G., Hales, C. M., Berry-Kravis, E., Wolf-Ochoa, M. W., Martinez-Cerdeño, V., Wernig, M., Chen, L., Klann, E., Warren, S. T., Jin, P., Wen, Z., & Bassell, G. J. (2021). Cell-type-specific profiling of human cellular models of fragile X syndrome reveal PI3K-dependent defects in translation and neurogenesis. Cell Reports, 35(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108991 Cite
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ATF5 Deficiency Causes Abnormal Cortical Development

To investigate the cause of abnormal behaviors exhibited by ATF5−/− mice, researchers analyzed the embryonic cerebral cortex of ATF5−/− mice. The ATF5−/− embryonic cerebral cortex was slightly thinner and had reduced numbers of radial glial cells and neural progenitor cells, compared to a wild-type cerebral cortex.
[Scientific Reports]
Umemura, M., Kaneko, Y., Tanabe, R., & Takahashi, Y. (2021). ATF5 deficiency causes abnormal cortical development. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 7295. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-86442-5 Cite
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Defective Metabolic Programming Impairs Early Neuronal Morphogenesis in Neural Cultures and an Organoid Model of Leigh Syndrome

Using patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and CRISPR/Cas9 engineering, investigators developed a human model of Leigh syndrom caused by mutations in the complex IV assembly gene SURF1.
[Nature Communications]
Inak, G., Rybak-Wolf, A., Lisowski, P., Pentimalli, T. M., Jüttner, R., Glažar, P., Uppal, K., Bottani, E., Brunetti, D., Secker, C., Zink, A., Meierhofer, D., Henke, M.-T., Dey, M., Ciptasari, U., Mlody, B., Hahn, T., Berruezo-Llacuna, M., Karaiskos, N., … Prigione, A. (2021). Defective metabolic programming impairs early neuronal morphogenesis in neural cultures and an organoid model of Leigh syndrome. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1929. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22117-z Cite
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Efficient Induction of Neural Progenitor Cells from Human ESC/iPSCs on Type I Collagen

The authors established a novel and robust monolayer differentiation method to produce functional neural progenitor cells (NPC) from hESC/iPSCs on Type I Collagen. The derived cells not only displayed the requisite markers, but also behaved similarly to classic NPCs both in vitro and in vivo.
[Science China LIfe Sciences]
Liu, P., Chen, S., Wang, Y., Chen, X., Guo, Y., Liu, C., Wang, H., Zhao, Y., Wu, D., Shan, Y., Zhang, J., Wu, C., Li, D., Zhang, Y., Zhou, T., Chen, Y., Liu, X., Li, C., Wang, L., … Pei, D. (2021). Efficient induction of neural progenitor cells from human ESC/iPSCs on Type I Collagen. Science China Life Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1897-0 Cite
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Activation of Endogenous Retroviruses during Brain Development Causes an Inflammatory Response

Using CRISPR/Cas9‐based gene disruption of the epigenetic co‐repressor protein Trim28, scientists found a dynamic H3K9me3‐dependent regulation of endogenous retroviruses in proliferating neural progenitor cells, but not in adult neurons.
[EMBO Journal]
Jönsson, M. E., Garza, R., Sharma, Y., Petri, R., Södersten, E., Johansson, J. G., Johansson, P. A., Atacho, D. A., Pircs, K., Madsen, S., Yudovich, D., Ramakrishnan, R., Holmberg, J., Larsson, J., Jern, P., & Jakobsson, J. (2021). Activation of endogenous retroviruses during brain development causes an inflammatory response. The EMBO Journal, n/a(n/a), e106423. https://doi.org/10.15252/embj.2020106423 Cite
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Progenitor Cell Diversity in the Developing Mouse Neocortex

To determine whether temporal gene expression in neural progenitors correlates with neuron type specification, the authors performed single-cell RNA sequencing analysis of the developing mouse neocortex.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Ruan, X., Kang, B., Qi, C., Lin, W., Wang, J., & Zhang, X. (2021). Progenitor cell diversity in the developing mouse neocortex. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(10). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2018866118 Cite
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A Casz1–NuRD Complex Regulates Temporal Identity Transitions in Neural Progenitors

Scientists showed that Casz1 was required to control the transition between neurogenesis and gliogenesis. Using BioID proteomics, they revealed that Casz1 interacted with the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex in retinal cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Mattar, P., Jolicoeur, C., Dang, T., Shah, S., Clark, B. S., & Cayouette, M. (2021). A Casz1–NuRD complex regulates temporal identity transitions in neural progenitors. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3858. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83395-7 Cite
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