The authors report a protocol that efficiently induced near synchronous rosette organization, even from human PSC-derived neural progenitor cell monolayers that do not generally exhibit rosette formation using previously existing protocols.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
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Townshend, R. F., Shao, Y., Wang, S., Cortez, C. L., Esfahani, S. N., Spence, J. R., O’Shea, K. S., Fu, J., Gumucio, D. L., & Taniguchi, K. (2020). Effect of Cell Spreading on Rosette Formation by Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.588941 Cite
Researchers showed that H3K79me2 increases and H3K27ac decreases globally during in vitro neuronal differentiation of murine embryonic stem cells.
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Ferrari, F., Arrigoni, L., Franz, H., Izzo, A., Butenko, L., Trompouki, E., Vogel, T., & Manke, T. (2020). DOT1L-mediated murine neuronal differentiation associates with H3K79me2 accumulation and preserves SOX2-enhancer accessibility. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5200. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19001-7 Cite
The authors questioned whether chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7(CHD7) promoted gene transcription in neural progenitor cells via changes in chromatin accessibility. They used Chd7 null ESCs derived from Chd7 mutant mouse blastocysts as a tool to investigate roles of CHD7 in neuronal and glial differentiation.
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Yao, H., Hannum, D. F., Zhai, Y., Hill, S. F., Albanus, R. D. ’Oliveira, Lou, W., Skidmore, J. M., Sanchez, G., Saiakhova, A., Bielas, S. L., Scacheri, P., Ljungman, M., Parker, S. C. J., & Martin, D. M. (2020). CHD7 promotes neural progenitor differentiation in embryonic stem cells via altered chromatin accessibility and nascent gene expression. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17445. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74537-4 Cite
Scientists generated BAX/BAK double knockout human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs), hiPSC-derived neural progenitor cells, neural rosettes, and cerebral organoids to uncover the effects of BAX and BAK deletion in an in vitro model of early human brain development.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Modeling the function of BAX and BAK in early human brain development using iPSC-derived systems | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved September 25, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-03002-x Cite
Scientists found that Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) interacted with the nucleic acid–binding protein Ybx1. In neural progenitor cells, Ybx1 controlled self-renewal and neuronal differentiation.
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Brain organoids derived from iPSCs of patients are a powerful avenue to investigate the pathophysiological processes. Scientists generated iPSC-derived cerebral organoids from monozygotic twins discordant for psychosis.
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Sawada, T., Chater, T. E., Sasagawa, Y., Yoshimura, M., Fujimori-Tonou, N., Tanaka, K., Benjamin, K. J. M., Paquola, A. C. M., Erwin, J. A., Goda, Y., Nikaido, I., & Kato, T. (2020). Developmental excitation-inhibition imbalance underlying psychoses revealed by single-cell analyses of discordant twins-derived cerebral organoids. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0844-z Cite
Scientists investigated immunomodulatory potential of human Wharton’s jelly mesenchymal stem cells derived extracellular vesicles on inflammasome activity one week after spinal cord injury in rats.
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The authors performed cellular, kinematic, physiological, and anatomical analyses, either in vitro or in vivo, to comprehensively evaluate the safety and efficacy associated with subarachnoid transplantation of human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells in rats with subacute incomplete spinal cord injury.
[Experimental Cell Research]
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Using a rat contusive spinal cord injury model, scientists evaluated the survival, migration and differentiation of urine derived induced pluripotent stem cell-neural progenitor cells after transplantation at subacute phase.
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