Familial Alzheimer’s Disease Mutations in PSEN1 Lead to Premature Human Stem Cell Neurogenesis

Expression data from developmental and adult neurogenesis showed relative enrichment of Notch and γ-secretase expression in stem cells, whereas expression of APP and β-secretase was enriched in neurons.
[Cell Reports]
Arber, C., Lovejoy, C., Harris, L., Willumsen, N., Alatza, A., Casey, J. M., Lines, G., Kerins, C., Mueller, A. K., Zetterberg, H., Hardy, J., Ryan, N. S., Fox, N. C., Lashley, T., & Wray, S. (2021). Familial Alzheimer’s Disease Mutations in PSEN1 Lead to Premature Human Stem Cell Neurogenesis. Cell Reports, 34(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108615 Cite
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Mass Generation, Neuron Labeling, and 3D Imaging of Minibrains

Scientists present a step-by-step methodology to generate human minibrain nurseries and novel strategies to subsequently label projection neurons, perform immunohistochemistry and 3D imaging of the minibrains at large multiplexable scales.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
Govindan, S., Batti, L., Osterop, S. F., Stoppini, L., & Roux, A. (2021). Mass Generation, Neuron Labeling, and 3D Imaging of Minibrains. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2020.582650 Cite
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Long-Term Self-Renewing Stem Cells in the Adult Mouse Hippocampus Identified by Intravital Imaging

Scientists used two-photon microscopy and followed neural stem cells that were genetically labeled through conditional recombination driven by the regulatory elements of the stem cell-expressed genes GLI family zinc finger 1 or achaete-scute homolog 1.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Bottes, S., Jaeger, B. N., Pilz, G.-A., Jörg, D. J., Cole, J. D., Kruse, M., Harris, L., Korobeynyk, V. I., Mallona, I., Helmchen, F., Guillemot, F., Simons, B. D., & Jessberger, S. (2020). Long-term self-renewing stem cells in the adult mouse hippocampus identified by intravital imaging. Nature Neuroscience, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00759-4 Cite
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Ariadne’s Thread in the Developing Cerebral Cortex: Mechanisms Enabling the Guiding Role of the Radial Glia Basal Process During Neuron Migration

Investigators highlight the pathways enabling neuron-basal process interactions during migration, as well as the known mechanisms regulating the morphology of the radial glia basal process.
[Cells]
Meyerink, B. L., Tiwari, N. K., & Pilaz, L.-J. (2021). Ariadne’s Thread in the Developing Cerebral Cortex: Mechanisms Enabling the Guiding Role of the Radial Glia Basal Process during Neuron Migration. Cells, 10(1), 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/cells10010003 Cite
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Transplantation of Wnt5a-Modified NSCs Promotes Tissue Repair and Locomotor Functional Recovery after Spinal Cord Injury

Researchers demonstrated that both Wnt5a and miRNA200b-3p could promote neural stem cell (NSC) differentiation into neurons and that Wnt5a upregulated miRNA200b-3p expression through MAPK/JNK signaling to promote NSC differentiation into neurons.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
Li, X., Peng, Z., Long, L., Lu, X., Zhu, K., Tuo, Y., Chen, N., Zhao, X., Wang, L., & Wan, Y. (2020). Transplantation of Wnt5a-modified NSCs promotes tissue repair and locomotor functional recovery after spinal cord injury. Experimental & Molecular Medicine, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s12276-020-00536-0 Cite
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Human iNSC-Derived Brain Organoid Model of Lysosomal Storage Disorder in Niemann–Pick Disease Type C

Due to the inaccessibility of brain tissues from human Niemann-Pick disease, type C (NPC) patients, investigators developed NPC brain organoids with induced neural stem cells from NPC patient-derived fibroblasts.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Lee, S.-E., Shin, N., Kook, M. G., Kong, D., Kim, N. G., Choi, S. W., & Kang, K.-S. (2020). Human iNSC-derived brain organoid model of lysosomal storage disorder in Niemann–Pick disease type C. Cell Death & Disease, 11(12), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03262-7 Cite
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Analysis of the Stability of 70 Housekeeping Genes during iPS Reprogramming

The authors analyzed the expression patterns of the most comprehensive list to date of housekeeping genes during iPSC reprogramming of a mouse neural stem cell line, N31. Their results showed that housekeeping genes’ expression fluctuates significantly during the iPSC reprogramming.
[Scientific Reports]
Panina, Y., Germond, A., & Watanabe, T. M. (2020). Analysis of the stability of 70 housekeeping genes during iPS reprogramming. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 21711. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78863-5 Cite
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Reoccurring Neural Stem Cell Divisions in the Adult Zebrafish Telencephalon Are Sufficient for the Emergence of Aggregated Spatiotemporal Patterns

Scientists analyzed division events in an adult neural stem cell population of the zebrafish telencephalon.
[PLOS Biology]
Lupperger, V., Marr, C., & Chapouton, P. (2020). Reoccurring neural stem cell divisions in the adult zebrafish telencephalon are sufficient for the emergence of aggregated spatiotemporal patterns. PLOS Biology, 18(12), e3000708. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.3000708 Cite
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Generation of Brain Organoids from Mouse ESCs via Teratoma Formation

Investigators aimed to establish a new method to generate brain organoids efficiently in a mouse model. They applied the in vivo teratoma formation method as a new approach to generate brain organoids.
[Stem Cell Research]
Ji Lee, W., Eon Lee, J., Ju Hong, Y., Hoon Yoon, S., Song, H., Park, C., Hong, K., Choi, Y., & Tae Do, J. (2020). Generation of brain organoids from mouse ESCs via teratoma formation. Stem Cell Research, 102100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102100 Cite
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Ntrk1 Mutation Co-Segregating with Bipolar Disorder and Inherited Kidney Disease in a Multiplex Family Causes Defects in Neuronal Growth and Depression-Like Behavior in Mice

iPSCs were generated from family members, and then differentiated to neural stem cells (NSCs). E492K NSCs had reduced neurite outgrowth. A conditional knock-in mouse line, harboring the point mutation in the brain, showed depression-like behavior in the tail suspension test following challenge by physostigmine, a cholinesterase inhibitor.
[Translational Psychiatry]
Nakajima, K., Miranda, A., Craig, D. W., Shekhtman, T., Kmoch, S., Bleyer, A., Szelinger, S., Kato, T., & Kelsoe, J. R. (2020). Ntrk1 mutation co-segregating with bipolar disorder and inherited kidney disease in a multiplex family causes defects in neuronal growth and depression-like behavior in mice. Translational Psychiatry, 10(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-020-01087-8 Cite
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Chemical Mutagenesis of a Gpcr Ligand: Detoxifying “Inflammo-Attraction” to Direct Therapeutic Stem Cell Migration

When co-administered with transplanted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human neural stem cells in a mouse model of a prototypical neurodegenerative disease, the agonist enhanced migration, dissemination, and integration of donor-derived cells into the diseased cerebral cortex where their secreted cross-corrective enzyme mediated a therapeutic impact unachieved by cells alone.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Lee, J.-P., Zhang, R., Yan, M., Duggineni, S., Wakeman, D. R., Niles, W. L., Feng, Y., Chen, J., Hamblin, M. H., Han, E. B., Gonzalez, R., Fang, X., Zhu, Y., Wang, J., Xu, Y., Wenger, D. A., Seyfried, T. N., An, J., Sidman, R. L., … Snyder, E. Y. (2020). Chemical mutagenesis of a GPCR ligand: Detoxifying “inflammo-attraction” to direct therapeutic stem cell migration. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1911444117 Cite
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