Substance P Release by Sensory Neurons Triggers Dendritic Cell Migration and Initiates the Type-2 Immune Response to Allergens

Using a model of cutaneous allergen exposure, investigators showed that allergens directly activated TRPV1+ sensory neurons leading to itch and pain behaviors.
[Immunity]
Perner, C., Flayer, C. H., Zhu, X., Aderhold, P. A., Dewan, Z. N. A., Voisin, T., Camire, R. B., Chow, O. A., Chiu, I. M., & Sokol, C. L. (2020). Substance P Release by Sensory Neurons Triggers Dendritic Cell Migration and Initiates the Type-2 Immune Response to Allergens. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.001 Cite
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Quick Commitment and Efficient Reprogramming Route of Direct Induction of Retinal Ganglion Cell-like Neurons

Scientists showed that three transcription factors, Ascl1, Brn3b, and Isl1, efficiently converted fibroblasts into RGC-like neurons (iRGCs). The competence of cells to enter iRGC reprogramming route was determined by the cell-cycle status at a very early stage of the process.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Wang, J., He, Q., Zhang, K., Sun, H., Zhang, G., Liang, H., Guo, J., Hao, L., Ke, J., & Chen, S. (2020). Quick Commitment and Efficient Reprogramming Route of Direct Induction of Retinal Ganglion Cell-like Neurons. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.008 Cite
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Catalent and BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics Announce Partnership for the Manufacture of Mesenchymal Stem Cell Platform Therapy NurOwn®

Catalent and BrainStorm Cell Therapeutics, Inc announced an agreement for the manufacture of NurOwn®, BrainStorm’s autologous cellular therapy being investigated for the treatment of ALS, also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease or motor neuron disease.
[Catalent]
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Development and Application of High-Throughput Single Cell Lipid Profiling: A Study of SNCA-A53T Human Dopamine Neurons

The authors identified and isolated human iPSC-dopamine neurons with a TH-RFP reporter. Using liquid extraction surface analysis (LESA) coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry they developed a high-throughput method for untargeted single cell lipid profiling.
[iScience]
Snowden, S. G., Fernandes, H. J. R., Kent, J., Foskolou, S., Tate, P., Field, S. F., Metzakopian, E., & Koulman, A. (2020). Development and application of high-throughput single cell lipid profiling: a study of SNCA-A53T human dopamine neurons. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101703 Cite
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Transport of Ultrasmall Gold Nanoparticles (2 nm) across the Blood–Brain Barrier in a Six-Cell Brain Spheroid Model

The spheroids used were composed of six brain cell types: Astrocytes, pericytes, endothelial cells, microglia cells, oligodendrocytes, and neurons. They formed an in vitro blood brain barrier that regulated the transport of compounds into the spheroid.
[Scientific Reports]
Sokolova, V., Mekky, G., van der Meer, S. B., Seeds, M. C., Atala, A. J., & Epple, M. (2020). Transport of ultrasmall gold nanoparticles (2 nm) across the blood–brain barrier in a six-cell brain spheroid model. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18033. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75125-2 Cite
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Prevention of Mitochondrial Impairment by Inhibition of Protein Phosphatase 1 Activity in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Scientists found that Dynamin-related protein 1 was dephosphorylated in several ALS models, including those with SOD1 and TDP-43 mutations, and the dephosphorylation was mediated by the pathological induction of protein phosphatase 1 activity in these models.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Choi, S. Y., Lee, J.-H., Chung, A.-Y., Jo, Y., Shin, J., Park, H.-C., Kim, H., Lopez-Gonzalez, R., Ryu, J. R., & Sun, W. (2020). Prevention of mitochondrial impairment by inhibition of protein phosphatase 1 activity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03102-8 Cite
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The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Neuronal Signaling: from Neurodevelopment to Neurodegeneration

A highly pleiotropic and context-dependent nature of Pin1 functional activity, strictly dependent on the phosphorylation patterns of its cellular targets, clearly emerges. In the nervous system, Pin1 is fundamental both for embryonic development and cellular homeostasis in adult neurons, due to its role as regulator of cell death and survival.
[Molecular Neurobiology]
Fagiani, F., Govoni, S., Racchi, M., & Lanni, C. (2020). The Peptidyl-prolyl Isomerase Pin1 in Neuronal Signaling: from Neurodevelopment to Neurodegeneration. Molecular Neurobiology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12035-020-02179-8 Cite
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CMTR1-Catalyzed 2′-O-Ribose Methylation Controls Neuronal Development by Regulating Camk2α Expression Independent of RIG-I Signaling

Researchers found that knockdown of CMTR1 impaired dendrite development independent of secretory cytokines and RIG-I signaling.
[Cell Reports]
Lee, Y.-L., Kung, F.-C., Lin, C.-H., & Huang, Y.-S. (2020). CMTR1-Catalyzed 2′-O-Ribose Methylation Controls Neuronal Development by Regulating Camk2α Expression Independent of RIG-I Signaling. Cell Reports, 33(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108269 Cite
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Siah2 Integrates Mitogenic and Extracellular Matrix Signals Linking Neuronal Progenitor Ciliogenesis with Germinal Zone Occupancy

Researchers determined that the Siah2 E3 ubiquitin ligase functions in a coincidence detection circuit linking responses to the Shh mitogen and the ECM to control cerebellar granule neurons germinal zone occupancy.
[Nature Communications]
Ong, T., Trivedi, N., Wakefield, R., Frase, S., & Solecki, D. J. (2020). Siah2 integrates mitogenic and extracellular matrix signals linking neuronal progenitor ciliogenesis with germinal zone occupancy. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5312. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19063-7 Cite
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Modeling the Interaction between the Microenvironment and Tumor Cells in Brain Tumors

The authors focus on brain microenvironment features impacted by tumor biology. They also discuss limits of current preclinical models and how complementary models, such as humanized animals and organoids, will allow deeper mechanistic insights on cancer biology, allowing for more efficient testing of therapeutic strategies, including immunotherapy, for brain cancers.
[Neuron]
Pasqualini, C., Kozaki, T., Bruschi, M., Nguyen, T. H. H., Minard-Colin, V., Castel, D., Grill, J., & Ginhoux, F. (2020). Modeling the Interaction between the Microenvironment and Tumor Cells in Brain Tumors. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.09.018 Cite
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Functional Diversification of SRSF Protein Kinase to Control Ubiquitin-Dependent Neurodevelopmental Signaling

Scientists investigated the expression and function of SRPK family members in human pluripotent stem cells and the brain. SRPK1, SRPK2, and RNF12 were expressed in human iPSCs, and quantitative total proteomic analysis confirmed the expression of these components and REX1.
[Developmental Cell]
Bustos, F., Segarra-Fas, A., Nardocci, G., Cassidy, A., Antico, O., Davidson, L., Brandenburg, L., Macartney, T. J., Toth, R., Hastie, C. J., Moran, J., Gourlay, R., Varghese, J., Soares, R. F., Montecino, M., & Findlay, G. M. (2020). Functional Diversification of SRSF Protein Kinase to Control Ubiquitin-Dependent Neurodevelopmental Signaling. Developmental Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.devcel.2020.09.025 Cite
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