C9orf72 Arginine-Rich Dipeptide Repeats Inhibit UPF1-Mediated RNA Decay via Translational Repression

Scientists showed that RNA decay mechanisms involving upstream frameshift, including nonsense-mediated decay, were inhibited in c9ALS/FTD brains and in cultured cells expressing either of two arginine-rich dipeptide repeats, poly(GR) and poly(PR).
[Nature Communications]
Sun, Y., Eshov, A., Zhou, J., Isiktas, A. U., & Guo, J. U. (2020). C9orf72 arginine-rich dipeptide repeats inhibit UPF1-mediated RNA decay via translational repression. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3354. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17129-0 Cite
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Distinct Synchronization, Cortical Coupling and Behavioral Function of Two Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neuron Types

Researchers recorded basal forebrain cholinergic neurons in vivo, to examine their behavioral functions, and in vitro, to study their intrinsic properties.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Laszlovszky, T., Schlingloff, D., Hegedüs, P., Freund, T. F., Gulyás, A., Kepecs, A., & Hangya, B. (2020). Distinct synchronization, cortical coupling and behavioral function of two basal forebrain cholinergic neuron types. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-0648-0 Cite
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Reversing a Model of Parkinson’s Disease with In Situ Converted Nigral Neurons

Investigators report an efficient one-step conversion of isolated mouse and human astrocytes to functional neurons by depleting the RNA-binding protein PTB.
[Nature]
Qian, H., Kang, X., Hu, J., Zhang, D., Liang, Z., Meng, F., Zhang, X., Xue, Y., Maimon, R., Dowdy, S. F., Devaraj, N. K., Zhou, Z., Mobley, W. C., Cleveland, D. W., & Fu, X.-D. (2020). Reversing a model of Parkinson’s disease with in situ converted nigral neurons. Nature, 582(7813), 550–556. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2388-4 Cite
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Lysosomal Perturbations in Human Dopaminergic Neurons Derived from Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells with PARK2 Mutation

PARK2 knockout neurons exhibited a perturbed lysosomal morphology with enlarged electron-lucent lysosomes and an increased lysosomal content, which was exacerbated by mitochondrial stress and could be ameliorated by antioxidant treatment.
[Scientific Reports]
Okarmus, J., Bogetofte, H., Schmidt, S. I., Ryding, M., García-López, S., Ryan, B. J., Martínez-Serrano, A., Hyttel, P., & Meyer, M. (2020). Lysosomal perturbations in human dopaminergic neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells with PARK2 mutation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 10278. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67091-6 Cite
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Cortical Neurons Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Lacking FMRP Display Altered Spontaneous Firing Patterns

Electrophysiological whole-cell voltage- and current-clamp recordings were performed on two control and three fragile X syndrome patient lines of human cortical neurons derived from iPSCs.
[Molecular Autism]
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Distribution of Nerve Fibers and Nerve-Immune Cell Association in Mouse Spleen Revealed by Immunofluorescent Staining

Scientists demonstrated extensive nerve fibers in all splenic compartments including the splenic nodules, periarteriolar lymphoid sheath, marginal zones, trabeculae, and red pulp; close associations of nerve fibers with blood vessels; and close associations of nerve fibers with various subsets of dendritic cells, macrophages, and lymphocytes
[Scientific Reports]
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Vagus Nerve Stimulation Even after Injury Ameliorates Cisplatin-Induced Nephropathy via Reducing Macrophage Infiltration

To explore the role of the spleen and splenic macrophages, key players in the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, splenectomy, and adoptive transfer of macrophages treated with the selective α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist GTS-21 were conducted.
[Scientific Reports]
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The Pericyte Connectome: Spatial Precision of Neurovascular Coupling Is Driven by Selective Connectivity Maps of Pericytes and Endothelial Cells and Is Disrupted in Diabetes

Pericytes connected predominantly to other neighboring pericytes and endothelial cells, and less to arteriolar smooth muscle cells, and not to surrounding neurons or glia.
[Cell Discovery]
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In Vitro Differentiated Human Stem Cell-Derived Neurons Reproduce Synaptic Synchronicity Arising during Neurodevelopment

Scientists generated human iPSC-derived neurons exhibiting spontaneous oscillatory activity after cultivation of up to six months, which resembled early oscillations observed in rodent neurons. This behavior was found in neurons generated using a more “native” embryoid body protocol, in contrast to a “fast” protocol based on NGN2 overexpression.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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Neurons That Regulate Mouse Torpor

Scientists showed that entry into mouse torpor, a fasting-induced state with a greatly decreased metabolic rate and a body temperature as low as 20 °C, was regulated by neurons in the medial and lateral preoptic area of the hypothalamus.
[Nature]
Hrvatin, S., Sun, S., Wilcox, O. F., Yao, H., Lavin-Peter, A. J., Cicconet, M., Assad, E. G., Palmer, M. E., Aronson, S., Banks, A. S., Griffith, E. C., & Greenberg, M. E. (2020). Neurons that regulate mouse torpor. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2387-5 Cite
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Toxoplasma gondii Infection Impairs Radial Glia Differentiation and Its Potential to Modulate Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cell Function in the Cerebral Cortex

Conditioned medium (CM) from Radial Glia (RG) control cultures increased ZO-1 protein levels and organization on endothelial bEnd.3 cells membranes, which was impaired by CM from infected RG, accompanied by decreased trans-endothelial electrical resistance.
[Microvascular Research]
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Neural Metabolic Imbalance Induced by MOF Dysfunction Triggers Pericyte Activation and Breakdown of Vasculature

The authors showed that neural-specific depletion of three members of the non-specific lethal chromatin complex—Mof, Kansl2 or Kansl3—unexpectedly led to severe vascular defects and brain hemorrhaging.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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