Expression data from developmental and adult neurogenesis showed relative enrichment of Notch and γ-secretase expression in stem cells, whereas expression of APP and β-secretase was enriched in neurons.
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Arber, C., Lovejoy, C., Harris, L., Willumsen, N., Alatza, A., Casey, J. M., Lines, G., Kerins, C., Mueller, A. K., Zetterberg, H., Hardy, J., Ryan, N. S., Fox, N. C., Lashley, T., & Wray, S. (2021). Familial Alzheimer’s Disease Mutations in PSEN1 Lead to Premature Human Stem Cell Neurogenesis. Cell Reports, 34(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108615 Cite
Scientists generated profiles for the three regulatory layers from developmentally and regionally distinct subpopulations of neurons from the mouse hippocampus and broader nervous system.
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Using RNA sequencing of dorsal root ganglion, researchers determined that thoracic spinal cord injury elicited a transcriptional response distinct from sciatic nerve injury.
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To identify and characterize selectively vulnerable neuronal populations, the authors used single-nucleus RNA sequencing to profile the caudal entorhinal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus—brain regions where neurofibrillary inclusions and neuronal loss occurred early and late in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), respectively—from postmortem brains spanning the progression of AD-type tau neurofibrillary pathology.
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Leng, K., Li, E., Eser, R., Piergies, A., Sit, R., Tan, M., Neff, N., Li, S. H., Rodriguez, R. D., Suemoto, C. K., Leite, R. E. P., Ehrenberg, A. J., Pasqualucci, C. A., Seeley, W. W., Spina, S., Heinsen, H., Grinberg, L. T., & Kampmann, M. (2021). Molecular characterization of selectively vulnerable neurons in Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Neuroscience, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00764-7 Cite
Scientists showed that gene editing of Ube3a-ATS in the mouse brain resulted in the formation of base pair insertions/deletions in neurons and the subsequent unsilencing of the paternal Ube3a allele in neurons, which partially corrected the behavior phenotype of a murine Angelman syndrome model.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Scientists present a step-by-step methodology to generate human minibrain nurseries and novel strategies to subsequently label projection neurons, perform immunohistochemistry and 3D imaging of the minibrains at large multiplexable scales.
[Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology]
Scientists present an in vitro model of the peripheral nervous system by establishing a coculture model of motor neurons and Schwann cells in a 3D environment in a microengineered extracellular matrix hydrogel scaffold.
[NPG Asia Materials]
Researchers report that AG1529 competitively blocked capsaicin-evoked activation of human TRPV1 with micromolar potency, moderately affected pH-induced gating, and did not alter voltage- and heat-mediated responses.
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Nikolaeva-Koleva, M., Butron, L., González-Rodríguez, S., Devesa, I., Valente, P., Serafini, M., Genazzani, A. A., Pirali, T., Ballester, G. F., Fernández-Carvajal, A., & Ferrer-Montiel, A. (2021). A capsaicinoid-based soft drug, AG1529, for attenuating TRPV1-mediated histaminergic and inflammatory sensory neuron excitability. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 246. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80725-z Cite
Investigators examined whether exposure of cultured astrocytes to valproic acid altered neuronal morphology and synapse function of co-cultured neurons.
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BlueRock Therapeutics, LLC. announced that the FDA has cleared their Investigational New Drug (IND) application to proceed with a Phase I study in patients with advanced Parkinson’s disease (PD). This is the first trial in the United States to study pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons in patients with PD.
[BlueRock Therapeutics, LLC.]
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The authors describe a detrimental role of ApoE4 in regulating fatty acid (FA) metabolism across neuron and astrocyte in tandem with their distinctive mitochondrial phenotypes. ApoE4 disrupted neuronal function by decreasing FA sequestering in lipid droplets.