Scientists investigated the role that overexpression of UPF1, a protein involved in nonsense-mediated decay, plays in mitigating neurotoxicity in multiple models of C9orf72 ALS/FTD.
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Researchers tested the in vitro neuroprotective potential of mouse adipose derived stem cells in astrocyte/motor neuron co-cultures where amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) astrocytes show neurotoxicity.
[Molecular Therapy-Methods & Clinical Development]
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Scientists report a multi-compartment microfluidic device where up to three different cell populations could be cultured in a fluidically independent circuit. The device allows cell migration across the compartments and their differentiation.
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Single-cell transcriptomics of retinal cells, showed that fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) receptor Fgfr1 was specifically expressed in Müller glia/astrocytes.
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Fu, Z., Qiu, C., Cagnone, G., Tomita, Y., Huang, S., Cakir, B., Kotoda, Y., Allen, W., Bull, E., Akula, J. D., Joyal, J.-S., Hellström, A., Talukdar, S., & Smith, L. E. H. (2021). Retinal glial remodeling by FGF21 preserves retinal function during photoreceptor degeneration. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102376 Cite
Investigators generated human serotonergic neurons in vitro and detected secreted serotonin using aptamer-coated nanopipettes in a low nanomolar range, with the possibility of detecting significantly lower concentrations.
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Researchers compared two previously published protocols to obtain human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived striatal neurons from both healthy donors and Huntington’s disease patients.
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Le Cann, K., Foerster, A., Rösseler, C., Erickson, A., Hautvast, P., Giesselmann, S., Pensold, D., Kurth, I., Rothermel, M., Mattis, V. B., Zimmer-Bensch, G., von Hörsten, S., Denecke, B., Clarner, T., Meents, J., & Lampert, A. (2021). The difficulty to model Huntington’s disease in vitro using striatal medium spiny neurons differentiated from human induced pluripotent stem cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 6934. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85656-x Cite
Scientists provide a simple method for the storage of neural stem cells as neurospheres at ambient temperature as an alternative method to more costly and inconvenient traditional methods of cryopreservation.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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Li, S., Zhao, H., Han, X., Ni, B., He, L., Mukama, O., de Dieu Habimana, J., Lin, Z., Huang, R., Huang, H., Tian, C., Tang, F., & Li, Z. (2021). Generation of UCiPSC-derived neurospheres for cell therapy and its application. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 12(1), 188. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-021-02238-4 Cite
To selectively label dopaminergic neurons and analyze mitochondrial morphology at the ultrastructural level, investigators generated control and PRKN-mutated patient tyrosine hydroxylase reporter iPSC lines.
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Establishment of an in vitro model for analyzing mitochondrial ultrastructure in PRKN -mutated patient iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons | Molecular Brain | Full Text. (n.d.). Retrieved March 24, 2021, from https://molecularbrain.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13041-021-00771-0# Cite
Investigators revealed that mitophagy was broadly activated in metabolically enhanced neurons upon oxidative phosphorylation stimulation, which sustained high energetic activity by increasing mitochondrial turnover and hence facilitated mitochondrial maintenance.
The authors showed that Withaferin A protected against loss of dopaminergic neurons, neuroinflammation, and motor deficits in MPTP-induced Parkinson’s disease mouse models.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
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Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2)-G2019S, dramatically reduces the processivity of autophagosome transport in neurons in a kinase-dependent manner. This effect was consistent across an overexpression model, neurons from a G2019S knockin mouse, and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons gene edited to express the G2019S mutation, and the effect was reversed by genetic or pharmacological inhibition of LRRK2.
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