Short‐term cultures of glioma neural stem cells were compared to cultures of healthy astrocytes and neurons using flow cytometry. Glioblastoma tissues were dissociated and analysed by high‐parameter flow cytometry and single‐cell transcriptomics.
[Clinical & Translational Immunology]
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Endothelial, pericyte and tumor cell expression in glioblastoma identifies fibroblast activation protein (FAP) as an excellent target for immunotherapy - Ebert - 2020 - Clinical & Translational Immunology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved October 19, 2020, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cti2.1191 Cite
Investigators tested the capacity of a carbon material composed of amorphous sp3 carbon backbone, embedded with a percolating network of sp2 carbon domains to sustain neuronal cultures. They found that cortical neurons survive and develop faster on this novel carbon material.
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Ludwig, A., Kesaf, S., Heikkinen, J. J., Sukhanova, T., Khakipoor, S., Molinari, F., Pellegrino, C., Kim, S. I., Han, J. G., Huttunen, H. J., Lauri, S. E., Franssila, S., Jokinen, V., & Rivera, C. (2020). Novel carbon film induces precocious calcium oscillation to promote neuronal cell maturation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17661. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74535-6 Cite
The author discusses the conditions under which human cerebral organoids could require the acknowledgment of their own moral status.
Scientists showed that Sorcin expression levels were strongly increased in cellular, animal, and human models of Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and Huntington’s disease, vs. normal cells.
[Cell Death & Disease]
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Genovese, I., Giamogante, F., Barazzuol, L., Battista, T., Fiorillo, A., Vicario, M., D’Alessandro, G., Cipriani, R., Limatola, C., Rossi, D., Sorrentino, V., Poser, E., Mosca, L., Squitieri, F., Perluigi, M., Arena, A., van Petegem, F., Tito, C., Fazi, F., … Colotti, G. (2020). Sorcin is an early marker of neurodegeneration, Ca 2+ dysregulation and endoplasmic reticulum stress associated to neurodegenerative diseases. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03063-y Cite
Investigators showed that G3BP1 phosphorylation by casein kinase 2α (CK2α) triggered G3BP1 granule disassembly in injured axons. CK2α activity was temporally and spatially regulated by local translation of Csnk2a1 mRNA in axons after injury, but this required local translation of mTor mRNA and buffering of the elevated axonal Ca2+ that occurred after axotomy.
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Sahoo, P. K., Kar, A. N., Samra, N., Terenzio, M., Patel, P., Lee, S. J., Miller, S., Thames, E., Jones, B., Kawaguchi, R., Coppola, G., Fainzilber, M., & Twiss, J. L. (2020). A Ca2+-Dependent Switch Activates Axonal Casein Kinase 2α Translation and Drives G3BP1 Granule Disassembly for Axon Regeneration. Current Biology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2020.09.043 Cite
To better understand the role of miR-31, scientists characterized the mRNA and miRNAs expression profiles in the early stage of spinal cord-derived neural stem cells after miR-31 overexpression.
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The early-generated, largely transient neurons of the subplate play a key role in integrating spontaneous and sensory-driven activity. Early pathological conditions—such as hypoxia, inflammation, or exposure to pharmacological compounds—alter spontaneous activity patterns, which subsequently induce disturbances in cortical network activity.
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Transient cortical circuits match spontaneous and sensory-driven activity during development | Science. (n.d.). Retrieved October 16, 2020, from https://science.sciencemag.org/content/370/6514/eabb2153 Cite
The authors questioned whether chromodomain helicase DNA binding protein 7(CHD7) promoted gene transcription in neural progenitor cells via changes in chromatin accessibility. They used Chd7 null ESCs derived from Chd7 mutant mouse blastocysts as a tool to investigate roles of CHD7 in neuronal and glial differentiation.
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Yao, H., Hannum, D. F., Zhai, Y., Hill, S. F., Albanus, R. D. ’Oliveira, Lou, W., Skidmore, J. M., Sanchez, G., Saiakhova, A., Bielas, S. L., Scacheri, P., Ljungman, M., Parker, S. C. J., & Martin, D. M. (2020). CHD7 promotes neural progenitor differentiation in embryonic stem cells via altered chromatin accessibility and nascent gene expression. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 17445. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-74537-4 Cite
The authors employed dopaminergic neurons and microglia differentiated from patient-derived iPSCs carrying LRRK2 G2019S, the most common Parkinson’s disease-associated mutation.
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Interferon-γ signaling synergizes with LRRK2 in neurons and microglia derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 14, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-18755-4 Cite
Scientists performed the largest single-cell transcriptomic study of human iPSC-derived dopaminergic neurons to elucidate gene expression dynamics in response to cytotoxic and genetic stressors.
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Fernandes, H. J. R., Patikas, N., Foskolou, S., Field, S. F., Park, J.-E., Byrne, M. L., Bassett, A. R., & Metzakopian, E. (2020). Single-Cell Transcriptomics of Parkinson’s Disease Human In Vitro Models Reveals Dopamine Neuron-Specific Stress Responses. Cell Reports, 33(2). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108263 Cite
The neural crest (NC) is an ESC population that contributes to a greatly expanding list of derivatives ranging from neurons and glia of the peripheral nervous system, facial cartilage and bone, pigment cells of the skin to secretory cells of the endocrine system. Scientists focus on what is specifically known about establishment and maintenance of NC stemness and ultimate fate commitment mechanisms.