Definitive Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells through Serum/Feeder-Free Organoid-Induced Differentiation

To derive definitive hematopoietic stem/precursor cells from human embryonic stem cells, scientists differentiated mesodermally specified embryoid bodies on gelatin-coated plates in serum/feeder-free conditions.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
Demirci, S., Haro-Mora, J. J., Leonard, A., Drysdale, C., Malide, D., Keyvanfar, K., Essawi, K., Vizcardo, R., Tamaoki, N., Restifo, N. P., Tisdale, J. F., & Uchida, N. (2020). Definitive hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells from human embryonic stem cells through serum/feeder-free organoid-induced differentiation. Stem Cell Research & Therapy, 11(1), 493. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13287-020-02019-5 Cite
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Unveiling Role of Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor 2 as a Brake of Epithelial Stem Cell Proliferation and a Tumor Suppressor in Colorectal Cancer

Researchers mimicked the ablation of S1PR2 in normal mucosa by treating S1PR2+/+ organoids with JTE013 and characterized intestinal epithelial stem cells isolated from S1PR2-/-Lgr5-EGFP- mice.
[Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research]
Petti, L., Rizzo, G., Rubbino, F., Elangovan, S., Colombo, P., Restelli, S., Piontini, A., Arena, V., Carvello, M., Romano, B., Cavalleri, T., Anselmo, A., Ungaro, F., D’Alessio, S., Spinelli, A., Stifter, S., Grizzi, F., Sgambato, A., Danese, S., … Vetrano, S. (2020). Unveiling role of sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 as a brake of epithelial stem cell proliferation and a tumor suppressor in colorectal cancer. Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research, 39(1), 253. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13046-020-01740-6 Cite
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Establishment of Human Fetal Hepatocyte Organoids and CRISPR–Cas9-Based Gene Knockin and Knockout in Organoid Cultures from Human Liver

Scientists established culture conditions that facilitate long-term expansion of human fetal hepatocytes as organoids
[Nature Protocols]
Hendriks, D., Artegiani, B., Hu, H., Chuva de Sousa Lopes, S., & Clevers, H. (2020). Establishment of human fetal hepatocyte organoids and CRISPR–Cas9-based gene knockin and knockout in organoid cultures from human liver. Nature Protocols, 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-00411-2 Cite
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Organoid Sample Preparation and Extraction for LC-MS Peptidomics

Scientists describe the peptidomic analysis of organoid lysates, FACS-purified cell populations, and 2D culture secretions by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.
[STAR Protocols]
Miedzybrodzka, E. L., Foreman, R. E., Galvin, S. G., Larraufie, P., George, A. L., Goldspink, D. A., Reimann, F., Gribble, F. M., & Kay, R. G. (2020). Organoid Sample Preparation and Extraction for LC-MS Peptidomics. STAR Protocols, 100164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xpro.2020.100164 Cite
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Generation of Brain Organoids from Mouse ESCs via Teratoma Formation

Investigators aimed to establish a new method to generate brain organoids efficiently in a mouse model. They applied the in vivo teratoma formation method as a new approach to generate brain organoids.
[Stem Cell Research]
Ji Lee, W., Eon Lee, J., Ju Hong, Y., Hoon Yoon, S., Song, H., Park, C., Hong, K., Choi, Y., & Tae Do, J. (2020). Generation of brain organoids from mouse ESCs via teratoma formation. Stem Cell Research, 102100. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scr.2020.102100 Cite
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Progenitor Identification and SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Human Distal Lung Organoids

Researchers generated long-term feeder-free, chemically defined culture of distal lung progenitors as organoids derived from single adult human alveolar epithelial type II or KRT5+ basal cells.
[Nature]
Salahudeen, A. A., Choi, S. S., Rustagi, A., Zhu, J., van Unen, V., de la O, S. M., Flynn, R. A., Margalef-Català, M., Santos, A. J. M., Ju, J., Batish, A., Usui, T., Zheng, G. X. Y., Edwards, C. E., Wagar, L. E., Luca, V., Anchang, B., Nagendran, M., Nguyen, K., … Kuo, C. J. (2020). Progenitor identification and SARS-CoV-2 infection in human distal lung organoids. Nature, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-3014-1 Cite
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Manipulating the Tumor Microenvironment in Tumor Organoids Induces Phenotypic Changes and Chemoresistance

Investigators used a tumor organoid model, consisting of hepatic stellate cells embedded in Collagen-1 (Col1) and colorectal cancer cell (HCT-116) spheroids, to determine the relationship between the ECM architecture, cancer cell malignancy, and chemoresistance.
[iScience]
Dominijanni, A., Devarasetty, M., & Soker, S. (2020). Manipulating the Tumor Microenvironment in Tumor Organoids Induces Phenotypic Changes and Chemoresistance. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2020.101851 Cite
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Cellular Extrusion Bioprinting Improves Kidney Organoid Reproducibility and Conformation

Scientists applied extrusion-based three-dimensional cellular bioprinting to deliver rapid and high-throughput generation of kidney organoids with highly reproducible cell number and viability.
[Nature Materials]
Lawlor, K. T., Vanslambrouck, J. M., Higgins, J. W., Chambon, A., Bishard, K., Arndt, D., Er, P. X., Wilson, S. B., Howden, S. E., Tan, K. S., Li, F., Hale, L. J., Shepherd, B., Pentoney, S., Presnell, S. C., Chen, A. E., & Little, M. H. (2020). Cellular extrusion bioprinting improves kidney organoid reproducibility and conformation. Nature Materials, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41563-020-00853-9 Cite
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ROCK Inhibitors Beneficially Alter the Spatial Configuration of TGFβ2-Treated 3D Organoids from a Human Trabecular Meshwork (HTM)

TGFβ2 significantly increased the TEER values in 2D cultures, and the ECM expression indicated that the 3D organoids assumed a more densely packed shape.
[Scientific Reports]
Ota, C., Ida, Y., Ohguro, H., & Hikage, F. (2020). ROCK inhibitors beneficially alter the spatial configuration of TGFβ2-treated 3D organoids from a human trabecular meshwork (HTM). Scientific Reports, 10(1), 20292. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77302-9 Cite
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Organoids and Spheroids As Novel Models for Studying Cholestatic Liver Injury and Cholangiocarcinoma

The authors summarize current methodologies for organoid/spheroid formation and a potential for 3D hepatic cell cultures as novel in vitro models of cholangiopathies.
[Hepatology]
Organoids and spheroids as novel models for studying cholestatic liver injury and cholangiocarcinoma - Sato - - Hepatology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://aasldpubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hep.31653 Cite
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Organoids and Organ Chips in Ophthalmology

Scientists review the current situation of organoids and organ chips in ophthalmology and discuss how they can be leveraged for translational applications.
[Ocular Surface]
Organoids and organ chips in ophthalmology - ScienceDirect. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S1542012420301713?via%3Dihub Cite
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