Schlafen 11 is a Novel Target for Mucosal Regeneration in Ulcerative Colitis

An in vitro model using human colon organoids was established by 60 weeks of inflammatory stimulation. The key gene for mucosal injury caused by long-term inflammation was identified by microarray analysis. An in vivo model was established by xenotransplantation of organoids into mouse colonic mucosa.
[Journal of Crohns & Colitis]
Watanabe, S., Nishimura, R., Shirasaki, T., Katsukura, N., Hibiya, S., Kirimura, S., Negi, M., Okamoto, R., Matsumoto, Y., Nakamura, T., Watanabe, M., & Tsuchiya, K. (2021). Schlafen 11 is a novel target for mucosal regeneration in Ulcerative Colitis. Journal of Crohn’s and Colitis, jjab032. https://doi.org/10.1093/ecco-jcc/jjab032 Cite
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Interleukin-28A Induces Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in CD Patient-derived Intestinal Organoids

Crohn’s disease patient-derived intestinal organoids were characterized by differentiation gene markers and then exposed to TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β or LPS, or IL-28A with or without GLPG0634.
[American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology]
Xu, P., Becker, H., Elizalde, M., Pierik, M., Masclee, A. A. M., & Jonkers, D. M. A. E. (2021). Interleukin-28A Induces Epithelial Barrier Dysfunction in CD Patient-derived Intestinal Organoids. American Journal of Physiology-Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology. https://doi.org/10.1152/ajpgi.00064.2020 Cite
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Impaired NEPHRIN Localization in Kidney Organoids Derived from Nephrotic Patient iPS Cells

Scientists established iPSCs from two additional patients with different NPHS1 mutations and examined the podocyte abnormalities in kidney organoids derived from these cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Ohmori, T., De, S., Tanigawa, S., Miike, K., Islam, M., Soga, M., Era, T., Shiona, S., Nakanishi, K., Nakazato, H., & Nishinakamura, R. (2021). Impaired NEPHRIN localization in kidney organoids derived from nephrotic patient iPS cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3982. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83501-9 Cite
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Role of Adenomatous Polyposis Coli in Proliferation and Differentiation of Colon Epithelial Cells in Organoid Culture

Researchers performed genetic analyses of adenomatous polyposis coli using a 3D organoid culture of mouse colon epithelia, which enabled the detailed examination of epithelial properties.
[Scientific Reports]
Yamazaki, D., Hashizume, O., Taniguchi, S., Funato, Y., & Miki, H. (2021). Role of adenomatous polyposis coli in proliferation and differentiation of colon epithelial cells in organoid culture. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 3980. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83590-6 Cite
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Neurodevelopmental Defects and Neurodegenerative Phenotypes in Human Brain Organoids Carrying Parkinson’s Disease-Linked DNAJC6 Mutations

To study the roles of DNAJC6 in Parkinson’s disease (PD) pathogenesis, scientists used human ESCs with CRISPR-Cas9-mediated gene editing. They showed that DNAJC6 mutations cause key PD pathologic features, i.e., midbrain-type dopamine neuron degeneration, pathologic α-synuclein aggregation, increase of intrinsic neuronal firing frequency, and mitochondrial and lysosomal dysfunctions in human midbrain-like organoid.
[Science Advances]
Wulansari, N., Darsono, W. H. W., Woo, H.-J., Chang, M.-Y., Kim, J., Bae, E.-J., Sun, W., Lee, J.-H., Cho, I.-J., Shin, H., Lee, S.-J., & Lee, S.-H. (2021). Neurodevelopmental defects and neurodegenerative phenotypes in human brain organoids carrying Parkinson’s disease-linked DNAJC6 mutations. Science Advances, 7(8), eabb1540. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb1540 Cite
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Modeling Human Brain Organogenesis using Pluripotent Stem Cells

Human iPSCs has the potential to generate all cell types of a human body under 2D culture conditions or form organ like structures- organoids, under 3D culture conditions.
[Biophysical Journal]
Ming, G.-L. (2021). Modeling Human Brain Organogenesis using Pluripotent Stem Cells. Biophysical Journal, 120(3), 282a. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2020.11.1792 Cite
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Crenolanib Regulates ERk and AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathways in RAS/BRAF-Mutated Colorectal Cancer Cells and Organoids

Scientists used multiple colorectal cancer (CRC) cell lines to investigate the growth-inhibitory effect of crenolanib and its effect in combination with other cytotoxic agents. Primary cultures of patient-derived organoids, a model that reflects the heterogeneity of clinical CRC, were used to further validate the effects of crenolanib.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
Fujino, S., Miyoshi, N., Ito, A., Yasui, M., Ohue, M., Ogino, T., Takahashi, H., Uemura, M., Matsuda, C., Mizushima, T., Doki, Y., & Eguchi, H. (2021). Crenolanib regulates ERK and AKT/mTOR signaling pathways in RAS/BRAF-mutated colorectal cancer cells and organoids. Molecular Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-20-0600 Cite
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Functional Patient-Derived Cellular Models for Neuropsychiatric Drug Discovery

Scientists discuss a novel strategy for neuropsychiatric drug discovery which aims to address limitations by identifying disease-related functional responses in a variety of patient-derived cells, such as induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons and organoids or peripheral blood mononuclear cells.
[Translational Psychiatry]
Lago, S. G., Tomasik, J., & Bahn, S. (2021). Functional patient-derived cellular models for neuropsychiatric drug discovery. Translational Psychiatry, 11(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-021-01243-8 Cite
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Prostaglandin F2α and EP2 Agonists, and a ROCK Inhibitor Modulate the Formation of 3D Organoids of Grave’s Orbitopathy Related Human Orbital Fibroblasts

3D organoids were prepared from Grave’s orbitopathy (GO) related human orbital fibroblasts obtained from patients with GO.
[Experimental Eye Research]
Ichioka, H., Ida, Y., Watanabe, M., Ohguro, H., & Hikage, F. (2021). Prostaglandin F2α and EP2 agonists, and a ROCK inhibitor modulate the formation of 3D organoids of Grave’s orbitopathy related human orbital fibroblasts. Experimental Eye Research, 108489. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exer.2021.108489 Cite
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Genomic Aberrations after Short-Term Exposure to Colibactin-Producing E. coli Transform Primary Colon Epithelial Cells

Colibactin’s distinct mutational signature is reflected in human colorectal cancer, suggesting a causal link. Scientists investigated its transformation potential using organoids from primary murine colon epithelial cells.
[Nature Communications]
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Human Intestinal Organoids Recapitulate Enteric Infections of Enterovirus and Coronavirus

The authors demonstrated that optimized human intestinal organoids enable better simulation of the native human intestinal epithelium, and they were significantly more susceptible to EV-A71 than CVA16.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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