Probiotic Properties of Escherichia coli Nissle in Human Intestinal Organoids

To assess the safety of and protection conferred by Nissle, researchers modeled infection in stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids.
[American Society for Microbiology]
Probiotic Properties of Escherichia coli Nissle in Human Intestinal Organoids | mBio. (n.d.). Retrieved July 8, 2020, from https://mbio.asm.org/content/11/4/e01470-20 Cite
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Cancer Cells Educate Natural Killer Cells to a Metastasis-Promoting Cell State

Using ex vivo and in vivo models of metastasis, scientists established that keratin-14+ breast cancer cells were vulnerable to natural killer cells.
[Journal of Cell Biology]
Chan, I. S., Knútsdóttir, H., Ramakrishnan, G., Padmanaban, V., Warrier, M., Ramirez, J. C., Dunworth, M., Zhang, H., Jaffee, E. M., Bader, J. S., & Ewald, A. J. (2020). Cancer cells educate natural killer cells to a metastasis-promoting cell state. Journal of Cell Biology, 219(9). https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202001134 Cite
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Human Organoids: Model Systems for Human Biology and Medicine

The authors discuss the applications, advantages and disadvantages of human organoids as models of development and disease and outlines the challenges that have to be overcome for organoids to be able to substantially reduce the need for animal experiments.
[Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology]
Kim, J., Koo, B.-K., & Knoblich, J. A. (2020). Human organoids: model systems for human biology and medicine. Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41580-020-0259-3 Cite
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Loss of Function of the Mitochondrial Peptidase PITRM1 Induces Proteotoxic Stress and Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Pathology in Human Cerebral Organoids

To investigate the pathogenetic mechanisms of mitochondrial presequence processing, researchers employed cortical neurons and cerebral organoids generated from PITRM1-knockout human iPSCs.
[Molecular Psychiatry]
Pérez, M. J., Ivanyuk, D., Panagiotakopoulou, V., Di Napoli, G., Kalb, S., Brunetti, D., Al-Shaana, R., Kaeser, S. A., Fraschka, S. A.-K., Jucker, M., Zeviani, M., Viscomi, C., & Deleidi, M. (2020). Loss of function of the mitochondrial peptidase PITRM1 induces proteotoxic stress and Alzheimer’s disease-like pathology in human cerebral organoids. Molecular Psychiatry, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0807-4 Cite
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TIGAR/AP-1 Axis Accelerates the Division of Lgr5 Reserve Intestinal Stem Cells to Reestablish Intestinal Architecture after Lethal Radiation

Scientists demonstrated that post-ionizing radiation (IR) overexpression of TIGAR, a critical downstream target of c-MYC in mouse intestine, mounted a hyperplastic response in Bmi1-creERT+ reserve intestinal stem cells, and thus rescued mice from lethal IR exposure.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Chen, F., Zhang, Y., Hu, S., Shi, X., Wang, Z., Deng, Z., Lin, L., Zhang, J., Pan, Y., Bai, Y., Liu, F., Zhang, H., & Shao, C. (2020). TIGAR/AP-1 axis accelerates the division of Lgr5 − reserve intestinal stem cells to reestablish intestinal architecture after lethal radiation. Cell Death & Disease, 11(7), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2715-6 Cite
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Characterizing Caspase-1 Involvement during Esophageal Disease Progression

Barrett’s esophagus patient biopsies and murine Barrett’s esophagus organoids were cultured ex vivo in the presence of a caspase-1 inhibitor, to determine the importance of caspase-1 for inflammatory cytokine and chemokine secretion.
[Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy]
Barber, G., Anand, A., Katarzyna Oficjalska, Phelan, J. J., Heeran, A. B., Flis, E., Clarke, N. E., Watson, J. A., Strangmann, J., Flood, B., O’Neill, H., O’Toole, D., MacCarthy, F., Ravi, N., Reynolds, J. V., Kay, E. W., Quante, M., O’Sullivan, J., & Creagh, E. M. (2020). Characterizing caspase-1 involvement during esophageal disease progression. Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00262-020-02650-4 Cite
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Long Term Exposure to a Grape Seed Proanthocyanidin Extract Enhances L‐Cell Differentiation in Intestinal Organoids

Mice ileum organoids were used to evaluate the long‐term effects of grape‐seed proanthocyanidin extract and two of its main components, epicatechin and gallic acid, on intestinal differentiation.
[Molecular Nutrition & Food Research]
van der Hee, B., Madsen, O., Vervoort, J., Smidt, H., & Wells, J. M. (2020). Congruence of Transcription Programs in Adult Stem Cell-Derived Jejunum Organoids and Original Tissue During Long-Term Culture. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00375 Cite
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Quiescent Stem Cell Marker Genes in Glioma Gene Networks are Sufficient to Distinguish between Normal and Glioblastoma (GBM) Samples

Scientists demonstrated that GBM associated gene regulatory modules were characterized by diagnostic quiescent stem cell marker genes.
[Scientific Reports]
Mukherjee, S. (2020). Quiescent stem cell marker genes in glioma gene networks are sufficient to distinguish between normal and glioblastoma (GBM) samples. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 10937. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-67753-5 Cite
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Congruence of Transcription Programs in Adult Stem Cell-Derived Jejunum Organoids and Original Tissue during Long-Term Culture

Researchers investigated the transcriptomes of jejunum organoids derived from the same pig as well as batch-to-batch variation of organoids derived from different pigs over long-term passage.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
van der Hee, B., Madsen, O., Vervoort, J., Smidt, H., & Wells, J. M. (2020). Congruence of Transcription Programs in Adult Stem Cell-Derived Jejunum Organoids and Original Tissue During Long-Term Culture. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00375 Cite
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Implementing Cell-Free DNA of Pancreatic Cancer Patient-Derived Organoids for Personalized Oncology

Investigators tested conditioned media of individual patient-derived organoids (PDOs) for cell-free tumor DNA to detect driver mutations already early on during the expansion process in order to accelerate the genetic characterization of PDOs as well as subsequent functional testing.
[JCI Insight]
Dantes, Z., Yen, H.-Y., Pfarr, N., Winter, C., Steiger, K., Muckenhuber, A., Hennig, A., Lange, S., Engleitner, T., Öllinger, R., Maresch, R., Orben, F., Heid, I., Kaissis, G. A., Shi, K., Topping, G. J., Stögbauer, F., Wirth, M., Peschke, K., … Reichert, M. (2020). Implementing cell-free DNA of pancreatic cancer patient-derived organoids for personalized oncology. JCI Insight. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.137809 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Productively Infects Human Gut Enterocytes

In human small intestinal organoids, enterocytes were readily infected by SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, as demonstrated by confocal and electron microscopy.
[Science]
Lamers, M. M., Beumer, J., Vaart, J. van der, Knoops, K., Puschhof, J., Breugem, T. I., Ravelli, R. B. G., Schayck, J. P. van, Mykytyn, A. Z., Duimel, H. Q., Donselaar, E. van, Riesebosch, S., Kuijpers, H. J. H., Schipper, D., Wetering, W. J. van de, Graaf, M. de, Koopmans, M., Cuppen, E., Peters, P. J., … Clevers, H. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 productively infects human gut enterocytes. Science, 369(6499), 50–54. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.abc1669 Cite
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