Scientists generated 5-hydroxymethylcytosine and transcriptome profiles encompassing several developmental time points of healthy forebrain organoids and organoids derived from several familial Alzheimer’s disease patients.
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Kuehner, J. N., Chen, J., Bruggeman, E. C., Wang, F., Li, Y., Xu, C., McEachin, Z. T., Li, Z., Chen, L., Hales, C. M., Wen, Z., Yang, J., & Yao, B. (2021). 5-hydroxymethylcytosine is dynamically regulated during forebrain organoid development and aberrantly altered in Alzheimer’s disease. Cell Reports, 35(4). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109042 Cite
The authors provide an overview of the recent developments in different in vitro and in vivo models, which aim to recapitulate the complexity of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in a laboratory environment, as well to describe how 3D in vitro models can be included into drug development pipelines that are already including sophisticated in vivo models.
[Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews]
New models of posterior embryo development identify neuromesodermal progenitors as a major bifurcation point in generating the spinal cord and somites and is leading to production of cell types with the full range of axial identities critical for repair of trunk and spine disorders. This is coupled with organoid technologies including assembloids, circuitoids, and gastruloids.
[Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience]
The effects of prostaglandin F2α analogues (PGF2α-ags) on human orbital fibroblasts were characterized by lipid staining, comparison of the 3D organoid sizes of preadipocytes or adipocytes that had been treated with various concentrations of several PGF2α-ags, physical stiffness, and the mRNA expression of adipogenic related genes, extracellular matrix, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases and matrix metalloproteinases.
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Scientists introduce the current state of brain organoid differentiation strategies, summarize current progress and applications in the medical domain, and discuss the challenges and prospects of this promising technology.
[Journal of Biomedical Science]
The authors describe a stem cell-based approach in rodents that enhanced fetal lung development via the administration of extracellular vesicles derived from amniotic fluid stem cells
[Science Translational Medicine]
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Antounians, L., Catania, V. D., Montalva, L., Liu, B. D., Hou, H., Chan, C., Matei, A. C., Tzanetakis, A., Li, B., Figueira, R. L., Costa, K. M. da, Wong, A. P., Mitchell, R., David, A. L., Patel, K., Coppi, P. D., Sbragia, L., Wilson, M. D., Rossant, J., & Zani, A. (2021). Fetal lung underdevelopment is rescued by administration of amniotic fluid stem cell extracellular vesicles in rodents. Science Translational Medicine, 13(590). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.aax5941 Cite
Researchers demonstrated that the established lacrimal gland (LG) organoids resembled the characteristics of normal LG tissue and may be used as a therapy for patients with dry eye disease.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
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The authors investigated how geometric confinement directed the structural morphology and contractile functions of the cardiac organoids and tailored the pattern geometry to optimize organoid production.
[Stem Cell Reports]
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Hoang, P., Kowalczewski, A., Sun, S., Winston, T. S., Archilla, A. M., Lemus, S. M., Ercan-Sencicek, A. G., Gupta, A. R., Liu, W., Kontaridis, M. I., Amack, J. D., & Ma, Z. (2021). Engineering spatial-organized cardiac organoids for developmental toxicity testing. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.03.013 Cite
Scientists review recent progress in the use of hydrogels to create artificial cellular microenvironments for personalized tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications, as well as to develop personalized disease models.
Scientists identified an emerging SARS-CoV-2 variant by viral whole-genome sequencing of 2,172 nasal/nasopharyngeal swab samples from 44 counties in California.
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Deng, X., Garcia-Knight, M. A., Khalid, M. M., Servellita, V., Wang, C., Morris, M. K., Sotomayor-González, A., Glasner, D. R., Reyes, K. R., Gliwa, A. S., Reddy, N. P., Martin, C. S. S., Federman, S., Cheng, J., Balcerek, J., Taylor, J., Streithorst, J. A., Miller, S., Sreekumar, B., … Chiu, C. Y. (2021). Transmission, infectivity, and neutralization of a spike L452R SARS-CoV-2 variant. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.04.025 Cite
Scientists identified RAC1B as an important mediator of colorectal tumourigenesis and a potential target for enhancing the efficacy of EGFR inhibitor treatment.
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Gudiño, V., Pohl, S. Ö.-G., Billard, C. V., Cammareri, P., Bolado, A., Aitken, S., Stevenson, D., Hall, A. E., Agostino, M., Cassidy, J., Nixon, C., von Kriegsheim, A., Freile, P., Popplewell, L., Dickson, G., Murphy, L., Wheeler, A., Dunlop, M., Din, F., … Myant, K. B. (2021). RAC1B modulates intestinal tumourigenesis via modulation of WNT and EGFR signalling pathways. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2335. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22531-3 Cite