While both acute low-intensity vibrations and lysophosphohaditic acid treatments increased nuclear YAP entry by 50 and 87% over the basal levels in simulated microgravity(SMG)-treated MSCs, nuclear YAP levels of all SMG groups were significantly lower than non-SMG controls.
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Scientists discuss recent findings of miR‐128 in relation to bone metabolism and muscle regeneration to determine its potential therapeutic effects in musculoskeletal diseases, and to propose directions for future research in this significant field.
[Journal of Cellular Physiology]
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Shang, Q., Shen, G., Chen, G., Zhang, Z., Yu, X., Zhao, W., Zhang, P., Chen, H., Tang, K., Yu, F., Tang, J., Liang, D., Jiang, X., & Ren, H. (n.d.). The emerging role of miR-128 in musculoskeletal diseases. Journal of Cellular Physiology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/jcp.30179 Cite
A bioinspired staged bone regeneration strategy which loads bone morphogenetic protein2 (BMP2)‐modified black phosphorus nanosheets to a polylactic acid electrospun fibrous scaffold, with a combination of recruiting osteoblast precursor cells and biomineralization properties for bone regeneration, was constructed successfully by micro‐sol electrospinning technique.
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Cheng, L., Chen, Z., Cai, Z., Zhao, J., Lu, M., Liang, J., Wang, F., Qi, J., Cui, W., & Deng, L. (n.d.). Bioinspired Functional Black Phosphorus Electrospun Fibers Achieving Recruitment and Biomineralization for Staged Bone Regeneration. Small, n/a(n/a), 2005433. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/smll.202005433 Cite
Smurf2 induced the ubiquitination of Smad1/5. Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)/Smad signaling was enhanced in Smurf2−/− bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) stimulated with recombinant human BMP2, and the inhibition of BMP/Smad signaling suppressed osteogenic differentiation of these BMSCs.
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Kushioka, J., Kaito, T., Okada, R., Ishiguro, H., Bal, Z., Kodama, J., Chijimatsu, R., Pye, M., Narimatsu, M., Wrana, J. L., Inoue, Y., Ninomiya, H., Yamamoto, S., Saitou, T., Yoshikawa, H., & Imamura, T. (2020). A novel negative regulatory mechanism of Smurf2 in BMP/Smad signaling in bone. Bone Research, 8(1), 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41413-020-00115-z Cite
Using a murine model of malaria and combining single-cell RNA sequencing, mathematical modelling, transplantation assays and intravital microscopy, researchers showed that haematopoiesis was reprogrammed upon infection.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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Manipulating niche composition limits damage to haematopoietic stem cells during Plasmodium infection | Nature Cell Biology. (n.d.). Retrieved November 24, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41556-020-00601-w Cite
Using a murine model of malaria and combining single-cell RNA sequencing, mathematical modelling, transplantation assays and intravital microscopy, scientists showed that hematopoiesis was reprogrammed upon infection, whereby the hematopoietic stem cell (HCS) compartment turned over substantially faster than at steady-state and HSC function was drastically affected.
[Nature Cell Biology]
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Haltalli, M. L. R., Watcham, S., Wilson, N. K., Eilers, K., Lipien, A., Ang, H., Birch, F., Anton, S. G., Pirillo, C., Ruivo, N., Vainieri, M. L., Pospori, C., Sinden, R. E., Luis, T. C., Langhorne, J., Duffy, K. R., Göttgens, B., Blagborough, A. M., & Lo Celso, C. (2020). Manipulating niche composition limits damage to haematopoietic stem cells during Plasmodium infection. Nature Cell Biology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-020-00601-w Cite
Scientists demonstrated that mice with RANKL deficiency in marrow adipogenic lineage precursors MALPs have a drastic increase in trabecular bone mass in long bones and vertebrae starting from one month of age, while their cortical bone appears normal.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
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Yu, W., Zhong, L., Yao, L., Wei, Y., Gui, T., Li, Z., Kim, H., Holdreith, N., Jiang, X., Tong, W., Dyment, N. A., Liu, X. S., Yang, S., Choi, Y., Ahn, J., & Qin, L. (2020). Bone marrow adipogenic lineage precursors (MALPs) promote osteoclastogenesis in bone remodeling and pathologic bone loss. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140214 Cite
The authors explore the relationship between endothelial cells and vascular calcification and to provide a theoretical basis and new ideas for the active prevention and treatment of vascular calcification in the clinic.
This in vitro study evaluated the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived MSCs (ASCs) seeded on trabecular titanium cages. ASCs adhered, proliferated and produced an abundant extracellular matrix during the 3 weeks of culture.
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Caliogna, L., Bina, V., Botta, L., Benazzo, F. M., Medetti, M., Maestretti, G., Mosconi, M., Cofano, F., Tartara, F., & Gastaldi, G. (2020). Osteogenic potential of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) seeded on titanium trabecular spinal cages. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18284. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75385-y Cite
The authors highlight the emerging role of prostate cancer (PCa)-derived extracellular vesicles in reprogramming osteoblasts and support of premetastatic niche formation. They also develop the concept of cancer-associated osteoblasts and outline the potential of PCa cells to acquire an osteoblastic phenotype, termed osteomimicry, as two strategies that PCa utilizes to create a favorable protected niche.
[Trends in Cancer]
Investigators exploited the DMP1 promoter as a predictive marker of MSC differentiation towards osteoblasts. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology, they identified a distinctive change in fluorescence intensities of GFP knock‐in and osteoblast differentiation.
[Journal of Gene Medicine]
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Shahabipour, F., Oskuee, R. K., Shokrgozar, M. A., Naderi‐Meshkin, H., Goshayeshi, L., & Bonakdar, S. (n.d.). CRISPR/Cas9 mediated GFP-Human Dentin Matrix Protein 1 (DMP1) Promoter knock-in at the ROSA26 locus in mesenchymal stem cell for monitoring osteoblast differentiation. The Journal of Gene Medicine, n/a(n/a), e3288. https://doi.org/10.1002/jgm.3288 Cite