Extracellular Vesicle-Associated Repetitive Element DNAs As Candidate Osteosarcoma Biomarkers

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and young adults. Despite high-risk factors being identified, no test for early detection is available. This study aimed to identify circulating nucleic acid sequences associated with serum extracellular vesicle preparations at the time of OS diagnosis, as a step towards an OS early detection assay.
[Scientific Reports]
Cambier, L., Stachelek, K., Triska, M., Jubran, R., Huang, M., Li, W., Zhang, J., Li, J., & Cobrinik, D. (2021). Extracellular vesicle-associated repetitive element DNAs as candidate osteosarcoma biomarkers. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 94. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-77398-z Cite
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ALKBH5 Suppresses Tumor Progression via an m6A-Dependent Epigenetic Silencing of Pre-miR-181b-1/Yap Signaling Axis in Osteosarcoma

The authors explored the potential involvement of ALKBH5 in osteosarcoma and deciphered the underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms. They discovered downregulated levels of demethylase ALKBH5 were correlated with increased m6A methylation in osteosarcoma cells/tissues compared with normal osteoblasts cells/tissues.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Yuan, Y., Yan, G., He, M., Lei, H., Li, L., Wang, Y., He, X., Li, G., Wang, Q., Gao, Y., Qu, Z., Mei, Z., Shen, Z., Pu, J., Wang, A., Zhao, W., Jiang, H., Du, W., & Yang, L. (2021). ALKBH5 suppresses tumor progression via an m 6 A-dependent epigenetic silencing of pre-miR-181b-1/YAP signaling axis in osteosarcoma. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03315-x Cite
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Transcriptional Activators YAP/TAZ and AXL Orchestrate Dedifferentiation, Cell Fate, and Metastasis in Human Osteosarcoma

To identify key drivers of metastasis, scientists studied human CCH-OS-D osteocarcinoma cells within a previously described rat acellular lung model that preserved the native lung architecture, extracellular matrix, and capillary network.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Lamhamedi-Cherradi, S.-E., Mohiuddin, S., Mishra, D. K., Krishnan, S., Velasco, A. R., Vetter, A. M., Pence, K., McCall, D., Truong, D. D., Cuglievan, B., Menegaz, B. A., Utama, B., Daw, N. C., Molina, E. R., Zielinski, R. J., Livingston, J. A., Gorlick, R., Mikos, A. G., Kim, M. P., & Ludwig, J. A. (2021). Transcriptional activators YAP/TAZ and AXL orchestrate dedifferentiation, cell fate, and metastasis in human osteosarcoma. Cancer Gene Therapy, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-020-00281-6 Cite
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LOX-1 and Cancer: An Indissoluble Liaison

The authors outline the role of LOX-1 in tumor spreading and metastasis, evidencing its function in VEGF induction, HIF-1alpha activation, and MMP-9/MMP-2 expression, pushing up the neoangiogenic and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition process in glioblastoma, osteosarcoma, prostate, colon, breast, lung, and pancreatic tumors.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Murdocca, M., De Masi, C., Pucci, S., Mango, R., Novelli, G., Di Natale, C., & Sangiuolo, F. (2021). LOX-1 and cancer: an indissoluble liaison. Cancer Gene Therapy, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-020-00279-0 Cite
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4-Methoxydalbergione Is a Potent Inhibitor of Human Astroglioma U87 Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

The authors evaluated 4‐Methoxydalbergione (4MOD) anti-astroglioma effects on both in vitro and in vivo models. In cultured astroglioma U87 cells, 4MOD inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell apoptosis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Li, R., Xu, C., Shen, J., Ren, Q., Chen, D., Lin, M., Huang, R., Li, C., Zhong, R., Luo, Z., Ji, X., & Wu, J. (2020). 4-Methoxydalbergione is a potent inhibitor of human astroglioma U87 cells in vitro and in vivo. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-00560-w Cite
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Single-Cell RNA Landscape of Intratumoral Heterogeneity and Immunosuppressive Microenvironment in Advanced Osteosarcoma

The transcriptomic properties, regulators and dynamics of osteosarcoma malignant cells together with their tumor microenvironment particularly stromal and immune cells are characterized.
[Nature Communications]
Zhou, Y., Yang, D., Yang, Q., Lv, X., Huang, W., Zhou, Z., Wang, Y., Zhang, Z., Yuan, T., Ding, X., Tang, L., Zhang, J., Yin, J., Huang, Y., Yu, W., Wang, Y., Zhou, C., Su, Y., He, A., … Hu, H. (2020). Single-cell RNA landscape of intratumoral heterogeneity and immunosuppressive microenvironment in advanced osteosarcoma. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6322. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20059-6 Cite
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Knockdown of STIP1 Inhibits the Invasion of CD133-Positive Cancer Stem-Like Cells of the Osteosarcoma MG63 Cell Line via the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 Pathways

CD133‑positive osteosarcoma cancer stem cells were first isolated and cultured by magnetic cell sorting and serum‑free medium suspension cell sphere culture, respectively.
[International Journal of Molecular Medicine]
Wang, J.-H., Gong, C., Guo, F.-J., Zhou, X., Zhang, M.-S., Qiu, H., Chao, T.-F., Liu, Y., Qin, L., & Xiong, H.-H. (2020). Knockdown of STIP1 inhibits the invasion of CD133‑positive cancer stem‑like cells of the osteosarcoma MG63 cell line via the PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 pathways. International Journal of Molecular Medicine, 46(6), 2251–2259. https://doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2020.4764 Cite
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LncRNA SNHG10 Promotes the Proliferation and Invasion of Osteosarcoma via Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling

In vitro experiments (including colony formation, CCK-8, wound healing and transwell assays) and in vivo experiments indicated that down-regulation of SNHG10 significantly suppressed the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma cells
[Molecular Therapy-Nucleic Acids]
Zhu, S., Liu, Y., Wang, X., Wang, J., & Xi, G. (2020). LncRNA SNHG10 promotes the proliferation and invasion of osteosarcoma via Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omtn.2020.10.010 Cite
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Nanoparticle Enhanced Combination Therapy for Stem-Like Progenitors Defined by Single-Cell Transcriptomics in Chemotherapy-Resistant Osteosarcoma

Scientists utilized single-cell transcriptomics to systematically map the cell-type-specific gene expression in a chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma tumor.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Wang, L., Huang, X., You, X., Yi, T., Lu, B., Liu, J., Lu, G., Ma, M., Zou, C., Wu, J., & Zhao, W. (2020). Nanoparticle enhanced combination therapy for stem-like progenitors defined by single-cell transcriptomics in chemotherapy-resistant osteosarcoma. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00248-x Cite
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Chitinase-3 Like-Protein-1 Function and Its Role in Diseases

Non-enzymatic chitinase-3 like-protein-1 (CHI3L1) binds to chitin, heparin, and hyaluronic acid, and is regulated by ECM changes, cytokines, growth factors, drugs, and stress. This review summarizes the potential roles and mechanisms of CHI3L1 in oncogenesis and disease pathogenesis, then posits investigational strategies for targeted therapies.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhao, T., Su, Z., Li, Y., Zhang, X., & You, Q. (2020). Chitinase-3 like-protein-1 function and its role in diseases. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–20. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00303-7 Cite
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Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Modified T Cells Targeting EphA2 for the Immunotherapy of Pediatric Bone Tumors

Investigators tested human erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor tyrosine kinase class A2 directed CAR T cells for their capacity to target and kill human paediatric osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma tumour cells using in vitro and in vivo assays.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
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