miR-146 Connects Stem Cell Identity with Metabolism and Pharmacological Resistance in Breast Cancer

Scientists showed that miR-146 was relevant for normal mammary stem cell and mammary cancer stem cell activity.
[Journal of Cell Biology]
Tordonato, C., Marzi, M. J., Giangreco, G., Freddi, S., Bonetti, P., Tosoni, D., Di Fiore, P. P., & Nicassio, F. (2021). miR-146 connects stem cell identity with metabolism and pharmacological resistance in breast cancer. Journal of Cell Biology, 220(e202009053). https://doi.org/10.1083/jcb.202009053 Cite
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Co-Dependency for MET and FGFR1 in Basal Triple-Negative Breast Cancers

Investigators utilized an established Met-dependent transgenic mouse model of TNBC, human cell lines and patient-derived xenografts to investigate the role of MET in TNBC tumorigenesis.
[npj Breast Cancer]
Sung, V. Y. C., Knight, J. F., Johnson, R. M., Stern, Y. E., Saleh, S. M., Savage, P., Monast, A., Zuo, D., Duhamel, S., & Park, M. (2021). Co-dependency for MET and FGFR1 in basal triple-negative breast cancers. Npj Breast Cancer, 7(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41523-021-00238-4 Cite
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Faciogenital Dysplasia 5 Supports Cancer Stem Cell Traits in Basal-Like Breast Cancer by Enhancing EGFR Stability

Scientists performed the basal-like breast cancers (BLBC) tissue microarray–based immunohistochemical analysis and showed that Faciogenital Dysplasia 5 (FGD5) abundance is associated with poor prognosis in BLBCs. FGD5 deletion decreased the proliferation, invasion, and tumorsphere formation capacity of BLBC cells.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Li, K., Zhang, T., Zhao, C., Wang, F., Cui, B., Yang, Z., Lv, X., Yeerjiang, Z., Yuan, Y., Yu, J., Wang, Z., Zhang, X., Yu, J., Liu, S., Shang, S., Huang, B., Hua, F., & Hu, Z. (2021). Faciogenital Dysplasia 5 supports cancer stem cell traits in basal-like breast cancer by enhancing EGFR stability. Science Translational Medicine, 13(586). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abb2914 Cite
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Aurora-A Kinase Oncogenic Signaling Mediates TGF-β-Induced Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Plasticity and Chemoresistance

Researchers demonstrated that aurora-A kinase is required to mediate TGF-β-induced expression of the SNAI1 gene, enrichment of ALDH1high breast tumor-initiating cells, self-renewal capacity, and chemoresistance in TNBC experimental models.
[Oncogene]
Jalalirad, M., Haddad, T. C., Salisbury, J. L., Radisky, D., Zhang, M., Schroeder, M., Tuma, A., Leof, E., Carter, J. M., Degnim, A. C., Boughey, J. C., Sarkaria, J., Yu, J., Wang, L., Liu, M. C., Zammataro, L., Malatino, L., Galanis, E., Ingle, J. N., … D’Assoro, A. B. (2021). Aurora-A kinase oncogenic signaling mediates TGF-β-induced triple-negative breast cancer plasticity and chemoresistance. Oncogene, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01711-x Cite
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Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer Using EpCAM Aptamer Tumor-Targeted Gene Knockdown

Knockdown of genes that function in multiple steps of cancer immunity was evaluated in aggressive triple-negative and HER2+ orthotopic, metastatic, and genetically engineered mouse breast cancer models.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Zhang, Y., Xie, X., Yeganeh, P. N., Lee, D.-J., Valle-Garcia, D., Meza-Sosa, K. F., Junqueira, C., Su, J., Luo, H. R., Hide, W., & Lieberman, J. (2021). Immunotherapy for breast cancer using EpCAM aptamer tumor-targeted gene knockdown. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(9). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2022830118 Cite
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Inhibition of DHFR Targets the Self-Renewing Potential of Brain Tumor Initiating Cells

Scientists focused on dihydrofolate reductase, a key enzyme in one-carbon metabolism, and demonstrated this enzyme’s overexpression in several human brain tumors and its expression in human brain tumor initiating cells.
[Cancer Letters]
Fawal, M.-A., Jungas, T., & Davy, A. (2021). Inhibition of DHFR targets the self-renewing potential of brain tumor initiating cells. Cancer Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.01.026 Cite
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Farnesyl Dimethyl Chromanol Targets Colon Cancer Stem Cells and Prevents Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

Investigators provided the first demonstration that farnesyl dimethyl chromanol inhibited colon cancer stem cell viability, survival, self-renewal, pluripotent transcription factors expression, organoids formation, and Wnt/β-catenin signalling, as evidenced by comparisons with vehicle-treated controls.
[Scientific Reports]
Wijshake, T., Zou, Z., Chen, B., Zhong, L., Xiao, G., Xie, Y., Doench, J. G., Bennett, L., & Levine, B. (2021). Tumor-suppressor function of Beclin 1 in breast cancer cells requires E-cadherin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(5). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020478118 Cite
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The Epigenetic Regulator Mll1 Is Required for Wnt-Driven Intestinal Tumorigenesis and Cancer Stemness

Investigators identified the histone methyltransferase Mll1 as a regulator of Wnt-driven intestinal cancer. Mll1 is highly expressed in Lgr5+ stem cells and human colon carcinomas with increased nuclear β-catenin.
[Nature Communications]
Grinat, J., Heuberger, J., Vidal, R. O., Goveas, N., Kosel, F., Berenguer-Llergo, A., Kranz, A., Wulf-Goldenberg, A., Behrens, D., Melcher, B., Sauer, S., Vieth, M., Batlle, E., Stewart, A. F., & Birchmeier, W. (2020). The epigenetic regulator Mll1 is required for Wnt-driven intestinal tumorigenesis and cancer stemness. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6422. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20222-z Cite
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MicroRNA-155 Contributes to Plexiform Neurofibroma Growth Downstream of MEK

Scientists analyzed a microRNA (miR) microarray comparing with normal and plexiform neurofibroma Schwann cells (PNF-SCs) and identified differences in miR expression, and they validated in mouse PNFs versus normal mouse SCs by qRT-PCR.
[Oncogene]
Na, Y., Hall, A., Choi, K., Hu, L., Rose, J., Coover, R. A., Miller, A., Hennigan, R. F., Dombi, E., Kim, M.-O., Subramanian, S., Ratner, N., & Wu, J. (2020). MicroRNA-155 contributes to plexiform neurofibroma growth downstream of MEK. Oncogene, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01581-9 Cite
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Alpha 1-Antichymotrypsin Contributes to Stem Cell Characteristics and Enhances Tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma

Researchers utilized patient-derived cerebrospinal fluid and primary cultures of glioblastoma brain tumor initiating cells. They determined the impact of SERPINA3 expression in glioma patients using TCGA database. SERPINA3 expression changes were evaluated at both the mRNA and protein levels.
[Neuro-Oncology]
Lara-Velazquez, M., Zarco, N., Carrano, A., Phillipps, J., Norton, E. S., Schiapparelli, P., Alkharboosh, R., Rincon-Torroella, J., Jeanneret, S., Corona, T., Segovia, J., Jentoft, M. E., Chaichana, K. L., Asmann, Y. W., Quinones-Hinojosa, A., & Guerrero-Cazares, H. (n.d.). Alpha 1-antichymotrypsin contributes to stem cell characteristics and enhances tumorigenicity of Glioblastoma. Neuro-Oncology. https://doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/noaa264 Cite
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CBL0137 Increases the Targeting Efficacy of Rovalpituzumab Tesirine against Tumor-Initiating Cells in Small Cell Lung Cancer

Researchers investigated the potential effect of combining Rovalpituzumab tesirine and CBL0137 in small cell lung cancer to eradicate tumor-initiating cells more effectively.
[British Journal of Cancer]
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