DGAT1 Inhibitors Protect Pancreatic β-Cells from Palmitic Acid-Induced Apoptosis

Researchers evaluated the potential beneficial effects of DGAT1 inhibitors on pancreatic β-cells, and further verified their antidiabetic effects in db/db mice.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
Huang, J., Guo, B., Wang, G., Zeng, L., Hu, Y., Wang, T., & Wang, H. (2020). DGAT1 inhibitors protect pancreatic β-cells from palmitic acid-induced apoptosis. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-020-0482-7 Cite
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Sarsasapogenin Improves Adipose Tissue Inflammation and Ameliorates Insulin Resistance in High-Fat Diet-Fed C57BL/6J Mice

Researchers showed that pretreatment with sarsasapogenin significantly inhibited acute adipose tissue inflammatory responses in LPS-treated mice.
[Acta Pharmacologica Sinica]
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Tissues Derived from Reprogrammed Wharton’s Jelly Stem Cells of the Umbilical Cord as a Platform to Study Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

Scientists reprogrammed the stem cells from the Wharton’s jelly of umbilical cords of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and non-GDM mothers into induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiated the iPSCs into insulin-producing cells to provide pancreatic tissues that represent the fetus of GDM and normal mothers.
[Stem Cell Research]
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A Novel Mechanism in Wound Healing: Laminin 332 Drives MMP9/14 Activity by Recruiting Syndecan-1 and CD44

By directly recruiting both syndecan-1 and CD44, laminin-332 G45 domain played a major role in regulating mechanisms underlying keratinocyte / ECM remodelling during wound repair.
[Matrix Biology]
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Functional Loss of Pancreatic Islets in Type 2 Diabetes: How Can We Halt It?

The authors provide a view of the experimental and clinical evidence on the ability of available anti-diabetes drugs to exert protective effects on beta-cells, with a specific focus on human pancreatic islets and clinical trials.
[Metabolism-Clinical and Experimental]
Marrano, N., Biondi, G., Cignarelli, A., Perrini, S., Laviola, L., Giorgino, F., & Natalicchio, A. (2020). Functional loss of pancreatic islets in type 2 diabetes: how can we halt it? Metabolism - Clinical and Experimental, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.metabol.2020.154304 Cite
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Long-Term Culture of Human Pancreatic Slices as a Model to Study Real-Time Islet Regeneration

Using a culture system designed to mimic the physiological oxygenation of the pancreas, scientists demonstrated high viability and preserved endocrine and exocrine function in human pancreatic slices for at least 10 days after sectioning.
[Nature Communications]
Qadir, M. M. F., Álvarez-Cubela, S., Weitz, J., Panzer, J. K., Klein, D., Moreno-Hernández, Y., Cechin, S., Tamayo, A., Almaça, J., Hiller, H., Beery, M., Kusmartseva, I., Atkinson, M., Speier, S., Ricordi, C., Pugliese, A., Caicedo, A., Fraker, C. A., Pastori, R. L., & Domínguez-Bendala, J. (2020). Long-term culture of human pancreatic slices as a model to study real-time islet regeneration. Nature Communications, 11(1), 3265. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-17040-8 Cite
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Overexpression of Gjb4 Impairs Cell Proliferation and Insulin Secretion in Primary Islet Cells

Overexpression of gap junction beta 4 protein in primary islet cells significantly inhibited the proliferation by 47%, reduced insulin secretion of primary islets (46%) and INS-1 cells (51%) and enhanced the rate of apoptosis by 63% in INS-1 cells.
[Molecular Metabolism]
Gässler, A., Quiclet, C., Kluth, O., Gottmann, P., Schwerbel, K., Helms, A., Stadion, M., Wilhelmi, I., Jonas, W., Ouni, M., Mayer, F., Spranger, J., Schürmann, A., & Vogel, H. (2020). Overexpression of Gjb4 impairs cell proliferation and insulin secretion in primary islet cells. Molecular Metabolism, 101042. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2020.101042 Cite
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Insulin Receptor Endocytosis in the Pathophysiology of Insulin Resistance

The authors review the molecular mechanism of insulin receptor endocytosis and its impact on the pathophysiology of insulin resistance, and discuss the potential of Src homology phosphatase 2 as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.
[Experimental and Molecular Medicine]
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Beta-Cell Failure in Type 2 Diabetes: Mechanisms, Markers, and Clinical Implications

Researchers discuss the progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the context of beta-cell failure and describe how C-peptide testing can be used to assess beta-cell function in primary care practice.
[Postgraduate Medicine]
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NRP2 as an Emerging Angiogenic Player; Promoting Endothelial Cell Adhesion and Migration by Regulating Recycling of α5 Integrin

The authors demonstrated that neuropilin (NRP)2 promoted Rac-1 mediated endothelial cell adhesion and migration over fibronectin matrices in a mechanistically distinct fashion to NRP1, showing no dependence on β3 integrin expression, or VEGF stimulation
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
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