Tumor-Suppressor Function of Beclin 1 in Breast Cancer Cells Requires E-Cadherin

Researchers performed a genome-wide CRISPR/Cas9 screen in MCF7 breast cancer cells to identify genes whose loss of function reversed Beclin 1-dependent inhibition of cellular proliferation.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Wijshake, T., Zou, Z., Chen, B., Zhong, L., Xiao, G., Xie, Y., Doench, J. G., Bennett, L., & Levine, B. (2021). Tumor-suppressor function of Beclin 1 in breast cancer cells requires E-cadherin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(5). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020478118 Cite
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Farnesyl Dimethyl Chromanol Targets Colon Cancer Stem Cells and Prevents Colorectal Cancer Metastasis

Investigators provided the first demonstration that farnesyl dimethyl chromanol inhibited colon cancer stem cell viability, survival, self-renewal, pluripotent transcription factors expression, organoids formation, and Wnt/β-catenin signalling, as evidenced by comparisons with vehicle-treated controls.
[Scientific Reports]
Wijshake, T., Zou, Z., Chen, B., Zhong, L., Xiao, G., Xie, Y., Doench, J. G., Bennett, L., & Levine, B. (2021). Tumor-suppressor function of Beclin 1 in breast cancer cells requires E-cadherin. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(5). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2020478118 Cite
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The Irradiated Brain Microenvironment Supports Glioma Stemness and Survival via Astrocyte-Derived Transglutaminase 2

Extracellular matrix derived from irradiated astrocytes were found to be a major driver of this phenotype and astrocyte-derived transglutaminase 2 were identified as a promoter of glioma stemness and radioresistance.
[Cancer Research]
Berg, T. J., Marques, C., Pantazopoulou, V., Johansson, E., Stedingk, K. von, Lindgren, D., Jeannot, P., Pietras, E. J., Bergström, T., Swartling, F. J., Governa, V., Bengzon, J., Belting, M., Axelson, H., Squatrito, M., & Pietras, A. (2021). The irradiated brain microenvironment supports glioma stemness and survival via astrocyte-derived Transglutaminase 2. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1785 Cite
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TROAP Switches DYRK1 Activity to Drive Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression

Mechanistic investigation revealed that trophinin-associated protein directly bound to dual specificity tyrosine phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A/B (DYRK1A/B), resulting in the cytoplasmic retention of proteins DYRK1A/B and promoting cell cycle process via activation of Akt/GSK-3β signaling.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Li, L., Wei, J.-R., Song, Y., Fang, S., Du, Y., Li, Z., Zeng, T.-T., Zhu, Y.-H., Li, Y., & Guan, X.-Y. (2021). TROAP switches DYRK1 activity to drive hepatocellular carcinoma progression. Cell Death & Disease, 12(1), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03422-3 Cite
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The Influence of High-Density Lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL Subfractions on Insulin Secretion and Cholesterol Efflux in Pancreatic Derived β-Cells

Scientists used total HDL and HDL subfractions isolated from human plasma, to test insulin secretion under different glucose concentrations as well as insulin content and cholesterol efflux in the insulinoma MIN-6 cell line.
[Journal of Endocrinological Investigation]
Ochoa-Guzmán, A., Guillén-Quintero, D., Muñoz-Hernández, L., García, A., Díaz-Díaz, E., Pérez-Méndez, O., Rodríguez-Guillén, R., Mitre-Aguilar, I. B., Zentella-Dehesa, A., Aguilar-Salinas, C. A., & Tusié-Luna, M. T. (2021). The influence of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and HDL subfractions on insulin secretion and cholesterol efflux in pancreatic derived β-cells. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40618-021-01504-9 Cite
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Functional Expression of the Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin Type 1 Channel in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Cells

Investigators report the endogenous expression of transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) channels in human pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell lines and provided insights into the function of the TRPA1 protein in the Panc-1 cell line.
[Scientific Reports]
Cojocaru, F., Şelescu, T., Domocoş, D., Măruţescu, L., Chiritoiu, G., Chelaru, N.-R., Dima, S., Mihăilescu, D., Babes, A., & Cucu, D. (2021). Functional expression of the transient receptor potential ankyrin type 1 channel in pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 2018. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-81250-3 Cite
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Pharmacological Inhibition of Thioredoxin Reductase Increases Insulin Secretion and Diminishes Beta Cell Viability

The authors characterized the effects of a highly specific inhibitor of thioredoxin reductase, AM12, on the viability and function of insulin-secreting MIN6 cells and isolated NMRI mouse islets.
[Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology]
Brüning, D., Hatlapatka, K., Lier-Glaubitz, V., Andermark, V., Scherneck, S., Ott, I., & Rustenbeck, I. (2021). Pharmacological inhibition of thioredoxin reductase increases insulin secretion and diminishes beta cell viability. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg’s Archives of Pharmacology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00210-020-02046-2 Cite
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Inhibition of Hedgehog Signaling Alters Fibroblast Composition in Pancreatic Cancer

Scientists investigated how Hedgehog pathway inhibition reprogramed the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma microenvironment.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Steele, N. G., Biffi, G., Kemp, S. B., Zhang, Y., Drouillard, D., Syu, L.-J., Hao, Y., Oni, T. E., Brosnan, E., Elyada, E., Doshi, A., Hansma, C., Espinoza, C., Abbas, A., The, S., Irizarry-Negron, V. M., Halbrook, C. J., Franks, N., Hoffman, M., … Magliano, M. P. di. (2021). Inhibition of Hedgehog signaling alters fibroblast composition in pancreatic cancer. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-3715 Cite
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MUC4 Enhances Gemcitabine Resistance and Malignant Behavior in Pancreatic Cancer Cells Expressing Cancer-Associated Short O-Glycans

Scientists genetically knocked out MUC4 in PDAC cells that did not express and did express truncated O-glycans using CRISPR/Cas9 technology.
[Cancer Letters]
Sagar, S., Leiphrakpam, P. D., Thomas, D., McAndrews, K. L., Caffrey, T. C., Swanson, B. J., Clausen, H., Wandall, H. H., Hollingsworth, M. A., & Radhakrishnan, P. (2021). MUC4 enhances gemcitabine resistance and malignant behaviour in pancreatic cancer cells expressing cancer-associated short O-glycans. Cancer Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.01.015 Cite
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Phagocyte-Mediated Synapse Removal in Cortical Neuroinflammation Is Promoted by Local Calcium Accumulation

Researchers used functional and structural in vivo imaging in a mouse model of cortical multiple sclerosis to demonstrate that bouts of cortical inflammation disrupted cortical circuit activity coincident with a widespread, but transient, loss of dendritic spines.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Jafari, M., Schumacher, A.-M., Snaidero, N., Ullrich Gavilanes, E. M., Neziraj, T., Kocsis-Jutka, V., Engels, D., Jürgens, T., Wagner, I., Weidinger, J. D. F., Schmidt, S. S., Beltrán, E., Hagan, N., Woodworth, L., Ofengeim, D., Gans, J., Wolf, F., Kreutzfeldt, M., Portugues, R., … Kerschensteiner, M. (2021). Phagocyte-mediated synapse removal in cortical neuroinflammation is promoted by local calcium accumulation. Nature Neuroscience, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00780-7 Cite
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Time-Restricted Feeding Normalizes Hyperinsulinemia to Inhibit Breast Cancer in Obese Postmenopausal Mouse Models

Scientists tested a time-restricted feeding (TRF) approach on mouse models of obesity-driven postmenopausal breast cancer. They showed that TRF abrogated the obesity-enhanced mammary tumor growth in two orthotopic models in the absence of calorie restriction or weight loss
[Nature Communications]
Das, M., Ellies, L. G., Kumar, D., Sauceda, C., Oberg, A., Gross, E., Mandt, T., Newton, I. G., Kaur, M., Sears, D. D., & Webster, N. J. G. (2021). Time-restricted feeding normalizes hyperinsulinemia to inhibit breast cancer in obese postmenopausal mouse models. Nature Communications, 12(1), 565. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-20743-7 Cite
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