Assessment of Ethanol-Induced Toxicity on iPSC-Derived Human Neurons Using a Novel High-Throughput Mitochondrial Neuronal Health (MNH) Assay

Investigators developed a novel high-throughput assay to quantify mitochondrial and neuronal toxicity in human dopaminergic neuron-containing cultures from iPSCs.
[Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology]
Zink, A., Conrad, J., Telugu, N. S., Diecke, S., Heinz, A., Wanker, E., Priller, J., & Prigione, A. (2020). Assessment of ethanol-induced toxicity on iPSC-derived human neurons using a novel high-throughput Mitochondrial Neuronal Health (MNH) assay. Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.590540 Cite
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Visualization and Quantification of Dynamic Intercellular Coupling in Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using Single Cell Sonoporation

The authors quantify cell–cell permeability based on dye diffusion using mass transport models. Their results revealed heterogeneous intercellular connectivity and a variety of spatiotemporal characteristics of intercellular Ca2+ waves in human ESC colonies induced by sonoporation of single cells.
[Scientific Reports]
Fan, Z., Xue, X., Fu, J., & Deng, C. X. (2020). Visualization and quantification of dynamic intercellular coupling in human embryonic stem cells using single cell sonoporation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18253. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75347-4 Cite
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Derivation of Airway Basal Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

The authors report the directed differentiation of human iPSCs into airway basal cells, a population resembling the stem cell of the airway epithelium.
[Cell Stem Cell]
Hawkins, F. J., Suzuki, S., Beermann, M. L., Barillà, C., Wang, R., Villacorta-Martin, C., Berical, A., Jean, J. C., Suer, J. L., Matte, T., Simone-Roach, C., Tang, Y., Schlaeger, T. M., Crane, A. M., Matthias, N., Huang, S. X. L., Randell, S. H., Wu, J., Spence, J. R., … Kotton, D. N. (2020). Derivation of Airway Basal Stem Cells from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells. Cell Stem Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stem.2020.09.017 Cite
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Stratified Layer Analysis Reveals Intrinsic Leptin Stimulates Cryptal Mesenchymal Cells for Controlling Mucosal Inflammation

To evaluate the function of mesenchymal cells located at the large intestinal crypt, scientists established a novel method through which cells were harvested according to the histologic layers of mouse colon, and compared cellular properties between microenvironmental niches, the luminal mucosa and crypts.
[Scientific Reports]
Matsumura, S., Kurashima, Y., Murasaki, S., Morimoto, M., Arai, F., Saito, Y., Katayama, N., Kim, D., Inagaki, Y., Kudo, T., Ernst, P. B., Shimizu, T., & Kiyono, H. (2020). Stratified layer analysis reveals intrinsic leptin stimulates cryptal mesenchymal cells for controlling mucosal inflammation. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18351. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75186-3 Cite
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Osteogenic Potential of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells (hASCs) Seeded on Titanium Trabecular Spinal Cages

This in vitro study evaluated the adhesion, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of adipose derived MSCs (ASCs) seeded on trabecular titanium cages. ASCs adhered, proliferated and produced an abundant extracellular matrix during the 3 weeks of culture.
[Scientific Reports]
Caliogna, L., Bina, V., Botta, L., Benazzo, F. M., Medetti, M., Maestretti, G., Mosconi, M., Cofano, F., Tartara, F., & Gastaldi, G. (2020). Osteogenic potential of human adipose derived stem cells (hASCs) seeded on titanium trabecular spinal cages. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18284. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75385-y Cite
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Globally Altered Epigenetic Landscape and Delayed Osteogenic Differentiation in H3.3-G34W-Mutant Giant Cell Tumor of Bone

Investigators showed that in patient-derived stromal cells, H3.3-G34W was incorporated into the chromatin and associated with massive epigenetic alterations on the DNA methylation, chromatin accessibility and histone modification level, that caould be partially recapitulated in an orthogonal cell line system by the introduction of H3.3-G34W.
[Nature Communications]
Lutsik, P., Baude, A., Mancarella, D., Öz, S., Kühn, A., Toth, R., Hey, J., Toprak, U. H., Lim, J., Nguyen, V. H., Jiang, C., Mayakonda, A., Hartmann, M., Rosemann, F., Breuer, K., Vonficht, D., Grünschläger, F., Lee, S., Schuhmacher, M. K., … Plass, C. (2020). Globally altered epigenetic landscape and delayed osteogenic differentiation in H3.3-G34W-mutant giant cell tumor of bone. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5414. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18955-y Cite
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Sox2 Is Necessary for Androgen Ablation-Induced Neuroendocrine Differentiation from Pten Null Sca-1+/sup> Prostate Luminal Cells

Researchers provide direct genetic evidence that Sox2 is necessary for androgen ablation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation of Pten null prostate adenocarcinoma. They corroborate that the lineage status of the prostate cancer cells is a determinant for its propensity to exhibit lineage plasticity, and support that the intrinsic features of cell-of-origin for prostate cancers can dictate their clinical behaviors.
[Oncogene]
Kwon, O.-J., Zhang, L., Jia, D., & Xin, L. (2020). Sox2 is necessary for androgen ablation-induced neuroendocrine differentiation from Pten null Sca-1 + prostate luminal cells. Oncogene, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01526-2 Cite
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An Allosteric Peptide Inhibitor of HIF-1α Regulates Hypoxia-Induced Retinal Neovascularization

Researchers showed that a peptide fragment of CITED2 was taken up by retinal cells and efficiently regulated pathological angiogenesis in murine models of ischemic retinopathy.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Usui-Ouchi, A., Aguilar, E., Murinello, S., Prins, M., Gantner, M. L., Wright, P. E., Berlow, R. B., & Friedlander, M. (2020). An allosteric peptide inhibitor of HIF-1α regulates hypoxia-induced retinal neovascularization. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2017234117 Cite
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Genetically Engineered Magnetic Nanocages for Cancer Magneto-Catalytic Theranostics

Scientists demonstrated that encapsulin-produced magnetic iron oxide nanocomposites had excellent magnetic saturation and remnant magnetization properties, featuring superior magnetic-to-thermal conversion efficiency with an ultrahigh specific absorption rate of 2390 W/g to overcome the critical issues of magnetic hyperthermia therapy.
[Nature Communications]
Zhang, Y., Wang, X., Chu, C., Zhou, Z., Chen, B., Pang, X., Lin, G., Lin, H., Guo, Y., Ren, E., Lv, P., Shi, Y., Zheng, Q., Yan, X., Chen, X., & Liu, G. (2020). Genetically engineered magnetic nanocages for cancer magneto-catalytic theranostics. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5421. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19061-9 Cite
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Slug Regulates the Dll4-Notch-VEGFR2 Axis to Control Endothelial Cell Activation and Angiogenesis

Both endothelial cell-specific Slug re-expression and reduced Notch signaling, either by γ-secretase inhibition or loss of Dll4, rescued retinal angiogenesis in SlugKO mice.
[Nature Communications]
Hultgren, N. W., Fang, J. S., Ziegler, M. E., Ramirez, R. N., Phan, D. T. T., Hatch, M. M. S., Welch-Reardon, K. M., Paniagua, A. E., Kim, L. S., Shon, N. N., Williams, D. S., Mortazavi, A., & Hughes, C. C. W. (2020). Slug regulates the Dll4-Notch-VEGFR2 axis to control endothelial cell activation and angiogenesis. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5400. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18633-z Cite
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Metabolic Programming of Distinct Cancer Stem Cells Promotes Metastasis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma

Scientists investigated the role of distinct subtypes of pancreatic cancer stem cells and their metabolomic signatures in organ-specific metastatic colonization.
[Oncogene]
Nimmakayala, R. K., Leon, F., Rachagani, S., Rauth, S., Nallasamy, P., Marimuthu, S., Shailendra, G. K., Chhonker, Y. S., Chugh, S., Chirravuri, R., Gupta, R., Mallya, K., Prajapati, D. R., Lele, S. M., C. Caffrey, T., L. Grem, J., Grandgenett, P. M., Hollingsworth, M. A., Murry, D. J., … Ponnusamy, M. P. (2020). Metabolic programming of distinct cancer stem cells promotes metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Oncogene, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-020-01518-2 Cite
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