A Highly Multiplexed Droplet Digital PCR Assay to Measure the Intact HIV-1 Proviral Reservoir

Scientists designed two triplex droplet digital PCR assays, each with two unique targets and one in common, and normalize the results to PCR-based T cell counts.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Levy, C. N., Hughes, S. M., Roychoudhury, P., Reeves, D. B., Amstuz, C., Zhu, H., Huang, M.-L., Wei, Y., Bull, M. E., Cassidy, N. A. J., McClure, J., Frenkel, L. M., Stone, M., Bakkour, S., Wonderlich, E. R., Busch, M. P., Deeks, S. G., Schiffer, J. T., Coombs, R. W., … Hladik, F. (2021). A highly multiplexed droplet digital PCR assay to measure the intact HIV-1 proviral reservoir. Cell Reports Medicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100243 Cite
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Neutrophil Subtypes Shape HIV-Specific CD8 T-cell Responses after Vaccinia Virus Infection

Scientists found that these neutrophil subtypes showed distinct migratory and motility patterns and different ability to interact with CD8 T cells in the spleen following vaccinia virus infection.
[npj Vaccines]
Di Pilato, M., Palomino-Segura, M., Mejías-Pérez, E., Gómez, C. E., Rubio-Ponce, A., D’Antuono, R., Pizzagalli, D. U., Pérez, P., Kfuri-Rubens, R., Benguría, A., Dopazo, A., Ballesteros, I., Sorzano, C. O. S., Hidalgo, A., Esteban, M., & Gonzalez, S. F. (2021). Neutrophil subtypes shape HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses after vaccinia virus infection. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-021-00314-7 Cite
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Control of IFN-I Responses by the Aminopeptidase IRAP in Neonatal C57BL/6 Alveolar Macrophages during RSV Infection

Neonatal C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages mobilized very weakly the IFN-I pathway upon Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection in vitro and failed to restrain virus replication.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Drajac, C., Laubreton, D., Marquant, Q., Chottin, C., Ferret, C., Bouguyon, E., Schwartz-Cornil, I., Saveanu, L., Riffault, S., & Descamps, D. (2021). Control of IFN-I responses by the aminopeptidase IRAP in neonatal C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages during RSV infection. Mucosal Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00402-w Cite
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Human Airway Cells Prevent SARS-CoV-2 Multibasic Cleavage Site Cell Culture Adaptation

Researchers report that propagating SARS-CoV-2 on the human airway cell line Calu-3 prevented cell culture adaptations in the multibasic cleavage sites. Similar results were obtained using a human airway organoid-based culture system for SARS-CoV-2 propagation.
[eLife]
Lamers, M. M., Mykytyn, A. Z., Breugem, T. I., Wang, Y., Wu, D. C., Riesebosch, S., van den Doel, P. B., Schipper, D., Bestebroer, T., Wu, N. C., & Haagmans, B. L. (2021). Human airway cells prevent SARS-CoV-2 multibasic cleavage site cell culture adaptation. ELife, 10, e66815. https://doi.org/10.7554/eLife.66815 Cite
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Adhesion Receptor Adgrg2/Gpr64 Is In The Gi-Tract Selectively Expressed In Mature Intestinal Tuft Cells

Time-lapse studies of organoids from Trpm5GFP:Gpr64mCherry mice revealed sequential expression of initially Trpm5GFP and subsequently also Gpr64mCherry in maturing intestinal tuft cells.
[Molecular Metabolism]
Grunddal, K. V., Tonack, S., Egerod, K. L., Thompson, J. J., Petersen, N., Engelstoft, M. S., Vagne, C., Keime, C., Gradwohl, G., Offermanns, S., & Schwartz, T. W. (2021). Adhesion Receptor Adgrg2/Gpr64 Is In The Gi-Tract Selectively Expressed In Mature Intestinal Tuft Cells. Molecular Metabolism, 101231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molmet.2021.101231 Cite
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Improved Radium-223 Therapy with Combination Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockade

Utilizing primary human duodenal organoids as in vitro models of the functional GI epithelium, researchers found that Amiloride and NS-1619 presented significant effects in 223Ra membranal transport.
[Journal of Nuclear Medicine]
Abou, D. S., Fears, A., Summer, L., Longtine, M., Benabdallah, N., Riddle, R. C., Ulmert, D., Michalski, J., Wahl, R. L., Chesner, D., Doucet, M., Zachos, N., Simons, B., & Thorek, D. L. (2021). Improved Radium-223 Therapy with Combination Epithelial Sodium Channel Blockade. Journal of Nuclear Medicine. https://doi.org/10.2967/jnumed.121.261977 Cite
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Therapeutic B-Cell Depletion Reverses Progression of Alzheimer’s Disease

Using three different murine transgenic models, scientists provide counterintuitive evidence that the Alzheimer’s disease progression required B cells.
[Nature Communications]
Kim, K., Wang, X., Ragonnaud, E., Bodogai, M., Illouz, T., DeLuca, M., McDevitt, R. A., Gusev, F., Okun, E., Rogaev, E., & Biragyn, A. (2021). Therapeutic B-cell depletion reverses progression of Alzheimer’s disease. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2185. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22479-4 Cite
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The IRENA lncRNA Converts Chemotherapy-Polarized Tumor-Suppressing Macrophages to Tumor-Promoting Phenotypes in Breast Cancer

Scientists found that IFN-activated proinflammatory macrophages after neoadjuvant chemotherapy enhanced antitumor immunity but promoted cancer chemoresistance.
[Nature Cancer]
Liu, J., Lao, L., Chen, J., Li, J., Zeng, W., Zhu, X., Li, J., Chen, X., Yang, L., Xing, Y., Chen, F., Huang, D., Zhang, X., Wei, W., Gong, C., Huang, S., Yu, Z., Li, Z., Yang, L., … Song, E. (2021). The IRENA lncRNA converts chemotherapy-polarized tumor-suppressing macrophages to tumor-promoting phenotypes in breast cancer. Nature Cancer, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s43018-021-00196-7 Cite
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Nicotinamide Riboside, an NAD+ Precursor, Attenuates Inflammation and Oxidative Stress by Activating Sirtuin 1 in Alcohol-Stimulated Macrophages

Researchers investigated the effects of nicotinamide riboside, a natural nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide precursor, on alcohol-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in macrophages.
[Laboratory Investigation]
Kang, H., Park, Y.-K., & Lee, J.-Y. (2021). Nicotinamide riboside, an NAD + precursor, attenuates inflammation and oxidative stress by activating sirtuin 1 in alcohol-stimulated macrophages. Laboratory Investigation, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41374-021-00599-1 Cite
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Silk Fibroin Enhances Cytocompatibilty and Dimensional Stability of Alginate Hydrogels for Light-Based Three-Dimensional Bioprinting

Alginate derivatives were synthesized to induce rapid gelation, and a bioink was prepared by mixing these alginate derivatives with silk fibroin to enhance cell compatibility.
[Biomacromolecules]
Kim, E., Seok, J. M., Bae, S. B., Park, S. A., & Park, W. H. (2021). Silk Fibroin Enhances Cytocompatibilty and Dimensional Stability of Alginate Hydrogels for Light-Based Three-Dimensional Bioprinting. Biomacromolecules. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.biomac.1c00034 Cite
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A Liquid Culture Cancer Spheroid Model Reveals Low PI3K/Akt Pathway Activity and Low Adhesiveness to the Extracellular Matrix

Scientists examined liquid culture cancer spheroids for the acquisition of apical‐basal polarity, sensitivity to an Akt inhibitor and interaction with extracellular matrix.
[FEBS Journal]
Abe‐Fukasawa, N., Watanabe, R., Gen, Y., Nishino, T., & Itasaki, N. (n.d.). A liquid culture cancer spheroid model reveals low PI3K/Akt pathway activity and low adhesiveness to the extracellular matrix. The FEBS Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.15867 Cite
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