Clonal Hematopoiesis of Indeterminate Potential (CHIP): Linking Somatic Mutations, Hematopoiesis, Chronic Inflammation and Cardiovascular Disease

Investigators summarize emerging research on CHIP, the mechanisms underlying its important role in propagating inflammation and accelerating cardiovascular disease, and new studies detailing the role of associated risk factors and co-morbidities that increase CHIP prevalence.
[Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology]
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Fibroblasts: Origins, Definitions, and Functions in Health and Disease

Investigators summarize fibroblasts development, lineages, functions, and contributions to fibrosis in four fibroblast-rich organs: skin, lung, skeletal muscle, and heart.
[Cell]
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Cellular Senescence as a Possible Link between Prostate Diseases of the Aging Male

The theory of senescence as a mechanism for prostate disease has a number of clinical implications and could offer opportunities for targeting in the future.
[Nature Reviews Urology]
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Understanding Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis – Clinical Features, Molecular Mechanism and Therapies

Scientists highlight several of the advances that have been made and focus on the pathobiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
[Experimental Gerontology]
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A Multilayered Immune System through the Lens of Unconventional T Cells

Scientists recast unconventional T cell subsets according to the class of ligand that they recognize; their expression of semi-invariant or diverse T cell receptors; the structural features that underlie ligand recognition; their acquisition of effector functions in the thymus or periphery; and their distinct functional properties.
[Nature]
Mayassi, T., Barreiro, L. B., Rossjohn, J., & Jabri, B. (2021). A multilayered immune system through the lens of unconventional T cells. Nature, 595(7868), 501–510. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03578-0 Cite
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High-Throughput and Single-Cell T Cell Receptor Sequencing Technologies

The authors highlight advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies to identify TCR sequences and describe how they have been applied to discover fundamental insights into T cell-mediated immunity.
[Nature Methods]
Pai, J. A., & Satpathy, A. T. (2021). High-throughput and single-cell T cell receptor sequencing technologies. Nature Methods, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41592-021-01201-8 Cite
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Extracellular Matrix Requirements for Gastrointestinal Organoid Cultures

Investigators discuss the importance of the extracellular matrix in intestinal, hepatic, and pancreatic organoid culture and how biomaterial-based approaches can be used to probe different ECM properties required for more physiologically and translationally relevant organoid models.
[Biomaterials]
Rezakhani, S., Gjorevski, N., & Lutolf, M. P. (2021). Extracellular matrix requirements for gastrointestinal organoid cultures. Biomaterials, 276, 121020. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121020 Cite
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The Neutrophil

Neutrophils are immune cells with unusual biological features that furnish potent antimicrobial properties. These cells phagocytose and subsequently kill prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms very efficiently.
[Immunity]
Burn, G. L., Foti, A., Marsman, G., Patel, D. F., & Zychlinsky, A. (2021). The Neutrophil. Immunity, 54(7), 1377–1391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.06.006 Cite
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Pro-Resolving Lipid Mediators: Regulators of Inflammation, Metabolism and Kidney Function

In self-limiting inflammation, the evolving inflammatory response is coupled to distinct processes that promote the resolution of inflammation and restore homeostasis.
[Nature Reviews Nephrology]
Brennan, E., Kantharidis, P., Cooper, M. E., & Godson, C. (2021). Pro-resolving lipid mediators: regulators of inflammation, metabolism and kidney function. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-021-00454-y Cite
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Molecular Events in Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Development

To improve clinical outcomes, understanding of the biology and molecular mechanisms regulating neuroendocrine prostate cancer development is crucial.
[Nature Reviews Urology]
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Reprogramming Glial Cells into Functional Neurons for Neuro-Regeneration: Challenges and Promise

Scientists extensively review the experimental findings of the direct conversion of glial cells to neurons in vitro and in vivo and discuss the remaining issues and challenges related to the glial subtypes and the specificity and efficiency of direct cell-reprograming, as well as the influence of the microenvironment.
[Neuroscience Bulletin]
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