The authors discuss the mechanisms exploited by Gram-positive bacteria to circumvent killing by antimicrobial peptides. Specifically, the most clinically relevant genera, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Gram-positive bacilli, have been explored.
[Frontiers in Microbiology]
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Investigators highlight major recent discoveries that illuminate the dynamics and cellular mechanisms that govern keratinocyte differentiation in live mammalian skin and discuss the broader implications of these findings for the understanding of epithelial and stem cell biology in general.
[Current Opinion in Cell Biology]
The authors discuss how the recently defined functions of these Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk genes can be targeted therapeutically to modulate microglial cell state and slow the progression of AD.
Scientists provide a short introduction on human and mouse neuronal migration processes, and highlight human brain organoid models of neuronal migration diseases.
[Current Opinion in Neurobiology]
The author provides a comprehensive picture of the progress using 3D in vitro culture models for extracellular vesicle analysis.
[Biotechnology and Bioengineering]
Organoid models offer new perspectives in personalized medicine and drug discovery. The authors discuss the current liver organoid models for the study of liver disease.
The authors focus on the regionally distinct lung epithelial cell types that contribute to repair after injury, and they address current controversies regarding whether elite stem cells or frequent facultative progenitors are the predominant participants.
[Annual Review of Physiology]
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Alysandratos, K.-D., Herriges, M. J., & Kotton, D. N. (2021). Epithelial Stem and Progenitor Cells in Lung Repair and Regeneration. Annual Review of Physiology, 83(1), null. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-physiol-041520-092904 Cite
Researchers bring together what is currently known about chromatin status and the development of cells in the hematopoietic system under normal and abnormal conditions.
[Trends in Genetics]
Investigators focus on summarizing the biological characteristics of human amniotic epithelial cells, therapeutic applications, and recent advances in treating various tissue injuries and disorders.
[Stem Cell Research & Therapy]
The authors summarize and discuss the current literature on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) as the liver manifestation of the systemic metabolic syndrome and focuses on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the pathomechanisms as well as in the potential targeting of disease.
[Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology]
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Francque, S., Szabo, G., Abdelmalek, M. F., Byrne, C. D., Cusi, K., Dufour, J.-F., Roden, M., Sacks, F., & Tacke, F. (2020). Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis: the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors. Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41575-020-00366-5 Cite
To determine if gene expression analysis has been a successful approach for variant classification, the authors describe the design and comparability of 23 published gene expression studies that have profiled cells from BRCA1– and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers.