Branched-Chain Amino Acid Aminotransferase 2 Regulates Ferroptotic Cell Death in Cancer Cells

By using a high-throughput CRISPR/Cas9-based genetic screen in HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells to search for metabolic proteins inhibiting ferroptosis, researchers identified a branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 as a novel suppressor of ferroptosis.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Wang, K., Zhang, Z., Tsai, H., Liu, Y., Gao, J., Wang, M., Song, L., Cao, X., Xu, Z., Chen, H., Gong, A., Wang, D., Cheng, F., & Zhu, H. (2020). Branched-chain amino acid aminotransferase 2 regulates ferroptotic cell death in cancer cells. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00644-4 Cite
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HLA-DR15 Molecules Jointly Shape an Autoreactive T Cell Repertoire in Multiple Sclerosis

Scientists characterized the immunopeptidomes of the two HLA-DR15 allomorphs DR2a and DR2b of human primary B cells and monocytes, thymus, and multiple sclerosis brain tissue.
[Cell]
Wang, J., Jelcic, I., Mühlenbruch, L., Haunerdinger, V., Toussaint, N. C., Zhao, Y., Cruciani, C., Faigle, W., Naghavian, R., Foege, M., Binder, T. M. C., Eiermann, T., Opitz, L., Fuentes-Font, L., Reynolds, R., Kwok, W. W., Nguyen, J. T., Lee, J.-H., Lutterotti, A., … Martin, R. (2020). HLA-DR15 Molecules Jointly Shape an Autoreactive T Cell Repertoire in Multiple Sclerosis. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.09.054 Cite
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Exosomal LGALS9 in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Glioblastoma Patients Suppressed Dendritic Cell Antigen Presentation and Cytotoxic T-Cell Immunity

Researchers evaluated the difference in the proteome information of Exos from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) between glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients and low-grade glioma patients, and the correlations between GBM-CSF-Exos and immunosuppressive properties.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Exosomal LGALS9 in the cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients suppressed dendritic cell antigen presentation and cytotoxic T-cell immunity | Cell Death & Disease. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41419-020-03042-3 Cite
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Early-Onset Autoimmunity Associated with SOCS1 Haploinsufficiency

By whole-exome/genome sequencing scientists identified heterozygous, autosomal-dominant, germline loss-of-function mutations in the SOCS1 gene in ten patients from five unrelated families with early onset autoimmune manifestations.
[Nature Communications]
Hadjadj, J., Castro, C. N., Tusseau, M., Stolzenberg, M.-C., Mazerolles, F., Aladjidi, N., Armstrong, M., Ashrafian, H., Cutcutache, I., Ebetsberger-Dachs, G., Elliott, K. S., Durieu, I., Fabien, N., Fusaro, M., Heeg, M., Schmitt, Y., Bras, M., Knight, J. C., Lega, J.-C., … Rieux-Laucat, F. (2020). Early-onset autoimmunity associated with SOCS1 haploinsufficiency. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5341. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18925-4 Cite
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A Trispecific Killer Engager Molecule Against CLEC12A Effectively Induces NK-Cell Mediated Killing of AML Cells

To target acute myeloid leukemia blasts and leukemic stem cells using natural killer (NK) cells, scientists developed a trispecific killer engager molecule containing a humanized anti-CD16 heavy chain camelid single-domain antibody that activates NK cells.
[Leukemia]
Arvindam, U. S., van Hauten, P. M. M., Schirm, D., Schaap, N., Hobo, W., Blazar, B. R., Vallera, D. A., Dolstra, H., Felices, M., & Miller, J. S. (2020). A trispecific killer engager molecule against CLEC12A effectively induces NK-cell mediated killing of AML cells. Leukemia, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41375-020-01065-5 Cite
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Irreversible Electroporation Plus Allogenic Vγ9Vδ2 T Cells Enhances Antitumor Effect for Locally Advanced Pancreatic Cancer Patien

Researchers investigated the antitumor efficacy of irreversible electroporation plus allogeneic γδ T cells in locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Lin, M., Zhang, X., Liang, S., Luo, H., Alnaggar, M., Liu, A., Yin, Z., Chen, J., Niu, L., & Jiang, Y. (2020). Irreversible electroporation plus allogenic Vγ9Vδ2 T cells enhances antitumor effect for locally advanced pancreatic cancer patients. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 5(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-020-00260-1 Cite
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Polyreactive Broadly Neutralizing B cells Are Selected to Provide Defense against Pandemic Threat Influenza Viruses

By analyzing more than 500 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from B cells induced by numerous influenza virus vaccines and infections, we found mAbs targeting conserved neutralizing influenza virus hemagglutinin epitopes were polyreactive.
[Immunity]
Guthmiller, J. J., Lan, L. Y.-L., Fernández-Quintero, M. L., Han, J., Utset, H. A., Bitar, D. J., Hamel, N. J., Stovicek, O., Li, L., Tepora, M., Henry, C., Neu, K. E., Dugan, H. L., Borowska, M. T., Chen, Y.-Q., Liu, S. T. H., Stamper, C. T., Zheng, N.-Y., Huang, M., … Wilson, P. C. (2020). Polyreactive Broadly Neutralizing B cells Are Selected to Provide Defense against Pandemic Threat Influenza Viruses. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.005 Cite
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Endogenous Retroviruses Drive KRAB Zinc-Finger Protein Family Expression for Tumor Suppression

Scientists showed that human endogenous retroviruses activation in tumors leads to the up-regulation of hundreds of transcriptional suppressors, namely, Krüppel-associated box domain–containing zinc-finger family proteins.
[Science Advances]
Ito, J., Kimura, I., Soper, A., Coudray, A., Koyanagi, Y., Nakaoka, H., Inoue, I., Turelli, P., Trono, D., & Sato, K. (2020). Endogenous retroviruses drive KRAB zinc-finger protein family expression for tumor suppression. Science Advances, 6(43), eabc3020. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc3020 Cite
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Unbiased Screens Show CD8+ T Cells of COVID-19 Patients Recognize Shared Epitopes in SARS-CoV-2, Most of which Are Not Located in the Spike Protein

Scientists used an unbiased, genome-wide screening technology to determine the precise peptide sequences in SARS-CoV-2 that are recognized by the memory CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients.
[Immunity]
Ferretti, A. P., Kula, T., Wang, Y., Nguyen, D. M. V., Weinheimer, A., Dunlap, G. S., Xu, Q., Nabilsi, N., Perullo, C. R., Cristofaro, A. W., Whitton, H. J., Virbasius, A., Olivier, K. J., Buckner, L. R., Alistar, A. T., Whitman, E. D., Bertino, S. A., Chattopadhyay, S., & MacBeath, G. (2020). Unbiased screens show CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients recognize shared epitopes in SARS-CoV-2, most of which are not located in the Spike protein. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.006 Cite
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Prime Editing for Functional Repair in Patient-Derived Disease Models

Prime editing functionally recovered disease-causing mutations in intestinal organoids from patients with DGAT1-deficiency and liver organoids from a patient with Wilson disease
[Nature Communications]
Schene, I. F., Joore, I. P., Oka, R., Mokry, M., van Vugt, A. H. M., van Boxtel, R., van der Doef, H. P. J., van der Laan, L. J. W., Verstegen, M. M. A., van Hasselt, P. M., Nieuwenhuis, E. E. S., & Fuchs, S. A. (2020). Prime editing for functional repair in patient-derived disease models. Nature Communications, 11(1), 5352. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19136-7 Cite
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Exogenous L-Arginine Increases Intestinal Stem Cell Function through CD90+ Stromal Cells Producing mTORC1-Induced Wnt2b

Scientists utilized mice and small intestinal organoid models to clarify the role of L-arginine on epithelial differentiation of intestinal stem cells (ISCs). They showed that L-arginine increased expansion of ISCs in mice.
[Communications Biology]
Hou, Q., Dong, Y., Huang, J., Liao, C., Lei, J., Wang, Y., Lai, Y., Bian, Y., He, Y., Sun, J., Sun, M., Jiang, Q., Wang, B., Yu, Z., Guo, Y., & Zhang, B. (2020). Exogenous L-arginine increases intestinal stem cell function through CD90+ stromal cells producing mTORC1-induced Wnt2b. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01347-9 Cite
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