Targeting JAK-STAT Signaling to Control Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19

Several of the cytokines involved in COVID-19 employ a distinct intracellular signaling pathway mediated by Janus kinases (JAKs). JAK inhibition, therefore, presents an attractive therapeutic strategy for cytokine release syndrome, which is a common cause of adverse clinical outcomes in COVID-19.
[Trends in Pharmacological Sciences]
Luo, W., Li, Y.-X., Jiang, L.-J., Chen, Q., Wang, T., & Ye, D.-W. (2020). Targeting JAK-STAT Signaling to Control Cytokine Release Syndrome in COVID-19. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2020.06.007 Cite
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Variations in Killer-Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor and Human Leukocyte Antigen Genes and Immunity to Malaria

Understanding the role of killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors and human leukocyte antigens in immunity to malaria can help to better characterize antimalarial immune responses. The authors summarize the different KIRs and HLAs associated with immunity to malaria thus far.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
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From Threat to Cure: Understanding of Virus-Induced Cell Death Leads to Highly Immunogenic Oncolytic Influenza Viruses

The authors discuss strategies for targeting viral replication to cancerous lesions and arming them with immunogenic transgenes. They describe which modes of cell death are induced by influenza A virus infection and how these insights may be utilized to optimize influenza A virus-based oncolytic virus design.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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Considering How Biological Sex Impacts Immune Responses and COVID-19 Outcomes

The authors discuss available sex-disaggregated epidemiological data from the COVID-19 pandemic, introduce sex-differential features of immunity and highlight potential sex differences underlying COVID-19 severity.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
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Transplanting Neural Progenitor Cells to Restore Connectivity after Spinal Cord Injury

The authors focus on the use of neural progenitor cells obtained or derived from different sources to promote connectivity in sensory, motor and autonomic systems.
[Nature Reviews Neuroscience]
Fischer, I., Dulin, J. N., & Lane, M. A. (2020). Transplanting neural progenitor cells to restore connectivity after spinal cord injury. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41583-020-0314-2 Cite
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Tooth Formation: Are the Hardest Tissues of the Human Body Hard to Regenerate?

Approaches for whole-tooth regeneration utilizing adult stem cells, iPSCs, or tooth germ cells transplantation are emerging as promising alternatives to overcome existing in vitro tissue generation hurdles. The authors discuss the most recent advances in cellular signaling guiding dental tissue genesis.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
Baranova, J., Büchner, D., Götz, W., Schulze, M., & Tobiasch, E. (2020). Tooth Formation: Are the Hardest Tissues of Human Body Hard to Regenerate? International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21(11), 4031. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms21114031 Cite
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Cancer Stem Cells in Soft-Tissue Sarcomas

The authors review the published evidence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in soft tissue sarcoma (STS), discussing the molecular characteristic of CSCs, the commonly used isolation techniques and the new possibilities of targeting CSCs as a way to improve STS treatment and consequently patient outcome.
[Cells]
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Exosomes: A Potential Therapeutic Tool Targeting Communications between Tumor Cells and Macrophages

Scientists summarize the roles and mechanisms of exosomes in the interaction between tumor cells and macrophages and the potential methods by which exosomes are used to target the communication between tumor cells and macrophages to treat cancer.
[Molecular Therapy]
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The Physiology, Pathology, and Potential Therapeutic Applications of the TREM2 Signaling Pathway

Investigators summarize and question what is known and remains to be discovered about the TREM2 signaling pathway, track the consequences of its activation in physiological niches and pathological contexts, and highlight the promising potential of therapeutic manipulation of TREM2 signaling.
[Cell]
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Old Dogs, New Trick: Classic Cancer Therapies Activate cGAS

The authors review the antitumor roles of the GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS-STING) pathway during tumorigenesis, cancer immune surveillance, and cancer therapies. They also highlight classic cancer therapies that elicit antitumor immune responses through cGAS activation.
[Cell Research]
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Skull Base Chordomas and Chondrosarcomas

Chordomas and chondrosarcomas are not sensitive to chemotherapy and there are no approved drugs for their treatment. The present treatment concept is a combination of surgical resection with a maximal excision and preserving patients’ quality of life by adjuvant radiotherapy for both, chordomas and chondrosarcomas.
[Neuroendocrinology]
Kremenevski, N., Schlaffer, S.-M., Coras, R., Kinfe, T. M., Graillon, T., & Buchfelder, M. (2020). Skull base chordomas and chondrosarcomas. Neuroendocrinology. https://doi.org/10.1159/000509386 Cite
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