Epitope Spreading toward Wild-Type Melanocyte-Lineage Antigens Rescues Suboptimal Immune Checkpoint Blockade Responses

Scientists report that patients with low melanoma neoantigen burdens who responded to ICI had tumors with higher expression of pigmentation-related genes.
[Science Translational Medicine]
Lo, J. A., Kawakubo, M., Juneja, V. R., Su, M. Y., Erlich, T. H., LaFleur, M. W., Kemeny, L. V., Rashid, M., Malehmir, M., Rabi, S. A., Raghavan, R., Allouche, J., Kasumova, G., Frederick, D. T., Pauken, K. E., Weng, Q. Y., Silva, M. P. da, Xu, Y., Sande, A. A. J. van der, … Fisher, D. E. (2021). Epitope spreading toward wild-type melanocyte-lineage antigens rescues suboptimal immune checkpoint blockade responses. Science Translational Medicine, 13(581). https://doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.abd8636 Cite
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The Fate of Melanocyte: Mechanisms of Cell Death in Vitiligo

The authors summarize the latest insights into various forms of melanocytes death in vitiligo and discuss the corresponding mechanisms.
[Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research]
Wu, X., Yang, Y., Xiang, L., & Zhang, C. (n.d.). The fate of melanocyte: mechanisms of cell death in vitiligo. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12955 Cite
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Skin Pigmentation and its Control: From Ultraviolet Radiation to Stem Cells

Investigators discuss the pathways governing epithelial and follicular pigmentation, numerous areas of future research and potential points of intervention are highlighted.
[Experimental Dermatology]
Yardman‐Frank, J. M., & Fisher, D. E. (n.d.). Skin Pigmentation and its Control: From Ultraviolet Radiation to Stem Cells. Experimental Dermatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/exd.14260 Cite
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The Unfolded Protein and Integrated Stress Response in Melanoma and Vitiligo

Investigators review the potential roles of the unfolded protein response/integrated stress response in the etiology of melanoma and vitiligo.
[Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research]
Manga, P., & Choudhury, N. (n.d.). The Unfolded Protein and Integrated Stress Response in Melanoma and Vitiligo. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/pcmr.12947 Cite
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Vitexin Protects Melanocytes from Oxidative Stress via Activating MAPK-Nrf2/ARE Pathway

The authors investigated the antioxidant effect of vitexin-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase-Nrf2/ARE axis in vitiligo.
[Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology]
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p16ink4a Positivity of Melanocytes in Non-Segmental Vitiligo

Researchers found that p16ink4a immunoreactivity was not restricted to melanocytes but also existed in fibroblasts; the number of p16ink4a-positive fibroblasts was significantly increased in lesional skin compared to perilesional skin and normal controls.
[Diagnostics]
Lee, J. W., Kim, T. H., Park, T. J., & Kang, H. Y. (2020). p16ink4a Positivity of Melanocytes in Non-Segmental Vitiligo. Diagnostics, 10(11), 878. https://doi.org/10.3390/diagnostics10110878 Cite
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New Insight Into the Role of Exosomes in Vitiligo

The authors investigate the association of exosomes with vitiligo and emphasize the role of exosomes in immune regulation, melanocyte–keratinocyte interactions, and melanogenesis.
[Autoimmunity Reviews]
Wong, P. M., Yang, L., Yang, L., Wu, H., Li, W., Ma, X., Katayama, I., & Zhang, H. (2020). New insight into the role of exosomes in vitiligo. Autoimmunity Reviews, 102664. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.autrev.2020.102664 Cite
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Multiple Signaling Pathways Converge on Proapoptotic Protein BAD to Promote Survival of Melanocytes

The authors showed that melanocyte survival was mediated by diverse, nonredundant signaling pathways, including ERK1/2, AKT, PKA, and PKC.
[FASEB Journal]
Sastry, K. S., Ibrahim, W. N., & Chouchane, A. I. (n.d.). Multiple signaling pathways converge on proapoptotic protein BAD to promote survival of melanocytes. The FASEB Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1096/fj.202001260RR Cite
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CD49a Regulates Cutaneous Resident Memory CD8+ T Cell Persistence and Response

Investigators demonstrated that CD8+ tissue-resident memory cell expressing the α1 chain (CD49a) was expressed early following T cell activation in vivo, and TGF-β and IL-12 induced CD49a expression by CD8+ T cells in vitro.
[Cell Reports]
Bromley, S. K., Akbaba, H., Mani, V., Mora-Buch, R., Chasse, A. Y., Sama, A., & Luster, A. D. (2020). CD49a Regulates Cutaneous Resident Memory CD8+ T Cell Persistence and Response. Cell Reports, 32(9). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2020.108085 Cite
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Intracellular Virus Sensor MDA5 Exacerbates Vitiligo by Inducing the Secretion of Chemokines in Keratinocytes under Virus Invasion

Researchers clarified that virus invasion significantly activated MDA5 and further potentiated the keratinocyte-derived CXCL10 and CXCL16 which are the two vital chemokines for the cutaneous infiltration of CD8+ T cells in vitiligo.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Zhuang, T., Yi, X., Chen, J., Kang, P., Chen, X., Chen, J., Cui, T., Chang, Y., Ye, Z., Ni, Q., Wang, Y., Du, P., Li, B., Liu, L., Jian, Z., Li, K., Gao, T., Li, S., & Li, C. (2020). Intracellular virus sensor MDA5 exacerbates vitiligo by inducing the secretion of chemokines in keratinocytes under virus invasion. Cell Death & Disease, 11(6), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-2665-z Cite
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