Transcriptomic Profile of Pea3 Family Members Reveal Regulatory Codes for Axon Outgrowth and Neuronal Connection Specificity

Using transcriptomics and qPCR analyses in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, hypothalamic and hippocampal cell line, scientists identified cell type-specific and subfamily member-specific targets for PEA3 transcription factor subfamily.
[Scientific Reports]
Kandemir, B., Gulfidan, G., Arga, K. Y., Yilmaz, B., & Kurnaz, I. A. (2020). Transcriptomic profile of Pea3 family members reveal regulatory codes for axon outgrowth and neuronal connection specificity. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 18162. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-75089-3 Cite
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Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection Leads to Neurodevelopmental Disorder-Associated Neuropathological Changes

Researchers generated in vitro neurodevelopmental disorder models including human induced pluripotent stem cell based monolayer neuronal differentiation, 3D neuroepithelial bud, and 3D cerebral organoid to study fetal brain development and the potential neuropathological effects induced by the HSV-1 infections.
[Plos Pathogens]
Herpes simplex virus type 1 infection leads to neurodevelopmental disorder-associated neuropathological changes. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://journals.plos.org/plospathogens/article?id=10.1371/journal.ppat.1008899 Cite
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Orbus Therapeutics Expands Series A Financing to $71 Million to Support Ongoing STELLAR Phase III Study in Rare Brain Cancer

Orbus Therapeutics Inc. announced that it closed an expansion of its Series A financing. The expanded Series A funding will support the ongoing STELLAR study, a Phase III clinical trial studying eflornithine in patients with anaplastic astrocytoma whose cancer has recurred following radiation and adjuvant chemotherapy.
[Orbus Therapeutics Inc.(Globe Newswire, Inc)]
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Substance P Release by Sensory Neurons Triggers Dendritic Cell Migration and Initiates the Type-2 Immune Response to Allergens

Using a model of cutaneous allergen exposure, investigators showed that allergens directly activated TRPV1+ sensory neurons leading to itch and pain behaviors.
[Immunity]
Perner, C., Flayer, C. H., Zhu, X., Aderhold, P. A., Dewan, Z. N. A., Voisin, T., Camire, R. B., Chow, O. A., Chiu, I. M., & Sokol, C. L. (2020). Substance P Release by Sensory Neurons Triggers Dendritic Cell Migration and Initiates the Type-2 Immune Response to Allergens. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.001 Cite
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Gene Expression and Functional Deficits Underlie TREM2-Knockout Microglia Responses in Human Models of Alzheimer’s Disease

Scientists profiled microglia differentiated from isogenic, CRISPR-modified TREM2-knockout induced pluripotent stem cell lines.
[Nature Communications]
Gene expression and functional deficits underlie TREM2-knockout microglia responses in human models of Alzheimer’s disease | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 23, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19227-5 Cite
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Generation of Oligodendrocytes and Establishment of an All-Human Myelinating Platform From Human Pluripotent Stem Cells

Researchers describe a method to generate oligodendrocyte precursor cells from human pluripotent stem cells in only ~20 days, which could subsequently myelinate neurons, both in vitro and in vivo.
[Nature Protocols]
García-León, J. A., García-Díaz, B., Eggermont, K., Cáceres-Palomo, L., Neyrinck, K., Madeiro da Costa, R., Dávila, J. C., Baron-Van Evercooren, A., Gutiérrez, A., & Verfaillie, C. M. (2020). Generation of oligodendrocytes and establishment of an all-human myelinating platform from human pluripotent stem cells. Nature Protocols, 1–29. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41596-020-0395-4 Cite
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MediciNova, in Collaboration with the University of Sydney and the Australasian Gastro-Intestinal Trials Group, Announces Plans for a Multi-center, Phase IIb Study to Evaluate MN-166 (ibudilast) in Chemotherapy-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

MediciNova, Inc.announced that it plans to initiate a multi-center, placebo-controlled, randomized Phase IIb trial to evaluate MN-166 in chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy.
[MediciNova, Inc]
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Exosomal LGALS9 in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Glioblastoma Patients Suppressed Dendritic Cell Antigen Presentation and Cytotoxic T-Cell Immunity

Researchers found that glioblastoma multiforme-cerebrospinal fluid-exosomes (GBM-CSF-Exos) contained a unique protein, LGALS9 ligand, which bound to the TIM3 receptor of dendritic cells (DCs) in the CSF to inhibit antigen recognition, processing and presentation by DCs, leading to failure of the cytotoxic T-cell-mediated antitumor immune response.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Wang, M., Cai, Y., Peng, Y., Xu, B., Hui, W., & Jiang, Y. (2020). Exosomal LGALS9 in the cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients suppressed dendritic cell antigen presentation and cytotoxic T-cell immunity. Cell Death & Disease, 11(10), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-020-03042-3 Cite
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Emerging Microglia Biology Defines Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Alzheimer’s Disease

The authors discuss how the recently defined functions of these Alzheimer’s disease (AD) risk genes can be targeted therapeutically to modulate microglial cell state and slow the progression of AD.
[Neuron]
Lewcock, J. W., Schlepckow, K., Paolo, G. D., Tahirovic, S., Monroe, K. M., & Haass, C. (2020). Emerging Microglia Biology Defines Novel Therapeutic Approaches for Alzheimer’s Disease. Neuron, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuron.2020.09.029 Cite
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Quick Commitment and Efficient Reprogramming Route of Direct Induction of Retinal Ganglion Cell-like Neurons

Scientists showed that three transcription factors, Ascl1, Brn3b, and Isl1, efficiently converted fibroblasts into RGC-like neurons (iRGCs). The competence of cells to enter iRGC reprogramming route was determined by the cell-cycle status at a very early stage of the process.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Wang, J., He, Q., Zhang, K., Sun, H., Zhang, G., Liang, H., Guo, J., Hao, L., Ke, J., & Chen, S. (2020). Quick Commitment and Efficient Reprogramming Route of Direct Induction of Retinal Ganglion Cell-like Neurons. Stem Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2020.09.008 Cite
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Unacylated-Ghrelin Impairs Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory in Mice and Is Altered in Parkinson’s Dementia in Humans

The authors report that elevating circulating unacylated-ghrelin, using both pharmacological and genetic methods, reduced hippocampal neurogenesis and plasticity in mice.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Unacylated-Ghrelin Impairs Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Memory in Mice and Is Altered in Parkinson’s Dementia in Humans: Cell Reports Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved October 22, 2020, from https://www.cell.com/cell-reports-medicine/fulltext/S2666-3791(20)30162-2 Cite
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