Differentiation of Human Adult-Derived Stem Cells towards a Neural Lineage Involves a Dedifferentiation Event Prior to Differentiation to Neural Phenotypes

Scientists demonstrated that hPDLSCs, hBMSCs and hDPSCs could directly differentiate into neuron-like cells without passing through a mitotic stage and that they shrunk dramatically and changed their morphology to that of neuron-like cells through active neurite extension.
[Scientific Reports]
Bueno, C., Martínez-Morga, M., García-Bernal, D., Moraleda, J. M., & Martínez, S. (2021). Differentiation of human adult-derived stem cells towards a neural lineage involves a dedifferentiation event prior to differentiation to neural phenotypes. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12034. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91566-9 Cite
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Isorhapontigenin Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury via Modulating Kinase Cε/Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

Focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model and primary cortical neurons were established an oxygen-glucose deprivation injury model. Neuronal cell viability was determined by MTT assay. Western blot analysis was determined for protein expression.
[Brain and Behavior]
Xue, Z., Zhao, K., Sun, Z., Wu, C., Yu, B., Kong, D., & Xu, B. (n.d.). Isorhapontigenin ameliorates cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury via modulating Kinase Cε/Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Brain and Behavior, n/a(n/a), e02143. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1002/brb3.2143 Cite
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Molecular Mechanisms of Cell Death in Neurological Diseases

The authors discuss the interplay between distinct cell death signaling cascades and disease pathogenesis and describe pharmacological agents targeting key players in the cell death signaling pathways that have progressed through to clinical trials.
[Cell Death & Differentiation]
Moujalled, D., Strasser, A., & Liddell, J. R. (2021). Molecular mechanisms of cell death in neurological diseases. Cell Death & Differentiation, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41418-021-00814-y Cite
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Effects of the DRD2/3 Antagonist ONC201 and Radiation in Glioblastoma

Investigators suggested that combined treatment with the DRD2/3 antagonist ONC201 and radiation improves the efficacy of radiation against glioblastoma (GBM) in vitro and in vivo through suppression of glioma-initiating cells without increasing toxicity in mouse models of GBM.
[Radiotherapy and Oncology]
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Sciatic Nerve Regeneration After Traumatic Injury Using Magnetic Targeted Adipose-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells were loaded with citric acid coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, systemically transplanted and magnetically recruited to the injured sciatic nerve.
[Acta Biomaterialia]
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Human-Induced Neural and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Therapy Combined with a Curcumin Nanoconjugate as a Spinal Cord Injury Treatment

Researchers report on the development of an enhanced synergistic combination therapy comprising polyacetal–curcumin nanoconjugate and neural stem cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells + mesenchymal stem cells treatment as a treatment option for severe sub-acute traumatic spinal cord injury.
[International Journal of Molecular Sciences]
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Altered Lipid Metabolism Marks Glioblastoma Stem and Non-Stem Cells in Separate Tumor Niches

Investigators interrogated gene expression in separate microenvironments of glioblastoma organoid models that mimicked the transition between nutrient-rich and nutrient-poor pseudopalisading/perinecrotic tumor zones using spatial-capture RNA-sequencing.
[Acta Neuropathologica Communications]
Shakya, S., Gromovsky, A. D., Hale, J. S., Knudsen, A. M., Prager, B., Wallace, L. C., Penalva, L. O. F., Brown, H. A., Kristensen, B. W., Rich, J. N., Lathia, J. D., Brown, J. M., & Hubert, C. G. (2021). Altered lipid metabolism marks glioblastoma stem and non-stem cells in separate tumor niches. Acta Neuropathologica Communications, 9(1), 101. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40478-021-01205-7 Cite
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WNT5A Inhibition Alters the Malignant Peripheral Nerve Sheath Tumor Microenvironment and Enhances Tumor Growth

The authors compared gene expression of growth factors in normal human nerves to malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) and normal human Schwann cells to MPNST cell lines.
[Oncogene]
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Prohibitin 1 Is Essential to Preserve Mitochondria and Myelin Integrity in Schwann Cells

Scientists showed that deletion of prohibitin 1 in Schwann cells minimally perturbed development, but later triggered a severe demyelinating peripheral neuropathy.
[Nature Communications]
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Elevated GIGYF2 Expression Suppresses Tumor Migration and Enhances Sensitivity to Temozolomide in Malignant Glioma

Investigators found that elevation of GIGYF2 expression impaired cell migration and enhanced temozolomide sensitivity of human glioma cells.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
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Highly Selective Brain-to-Gut Communication via Genetically Defined Vagus Neurons

By performing unbiased transcriptional profiling of DMV cholinergic neurons, the authors discovered seven molecularly distinct subtypes of motor neurons.
[Neuron]
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