PIWI-Interacting RNA in Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Possible Clinical Implications (Review)

The authors highlight the latest research progress made in the biological functions and regulation of PIWI‑interacting RNA in mammals, their involvement in various cancer forms and their potential clinical applications.
[Oncology Reports]
Yuan, C., Qin, H., Ponnusamy, M., Chen, Y., & Lin, Z. (2021). PIWI‑interacting RNA in cancer: Molecular mechanisms and possible clinical implications (Review). Oncology Reports, 46(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8160 Cite
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Effect of ABT-263 on Intestinal Fibrosis in Human Myofibroblasts, Human Intestinal Organoids, and the Mouse Salmonella typhimurium Model

Scientists evaluated the proapoptotic and antifibrotic efficacy of several classes of BH-3 mimetics in two in vitro fibrogenesis models. The candidate molecule, ABT-263, was advanced to a 3D human intestinal organoid model.
[Inflammatory Bowel Diseases]
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PARP-Targeted Auger Therapy in p53 Mutant Colon Cancer Xenograft Mouse Models

Investigators demonstrated that the PARP inhibitor 123I-MAPi was a viable agent for the systemic administration and treatment of p53 mutant cancers. p53+/+ and p53–/– human colorectal cancer cell lines were evaluated for the ability of 123I-MAPi to induce tumor growth delay.
[Molecular Pharmaceutics]
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VprBP Directs Epigenetic Gene Silencing through Histone H2A Phosphorylation in Colon Cancer

Researchers showed that VprBP was overexpressed in colon cancer and directly contributed to epigenetic gene silencing and cancer pathogenesis. Mechanistically, the observed function of VprBP was mediated through H2AT120 phosphorylation-driven transcriptional repression of growth regulatory genes, resulting in a significantly higher proliferative capacity of colon cancer cells.
[Molecular Oncology]
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CircN4BP2L2 Promotes Colorectal Cancer Growth and Metastasis through Regulation of the miR-340-5p/CXCR4 Axis

CircN4BP2L2 expression was increased in colorectal cancer tissues and cell lines, and its inhibition effectively inhibited proliferation, migration, and invasion of LoVo cells, and inhibited tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas the forced expression of circN4BP2L2 facilitated the proliferation, migration, and invasion of HT-29 cells.
[Laboratory Investigation]
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SERS Quantification of Galunisertib Delivery in Colorectal Cancer Cells by Plasmonic-Assisted Diatomite Nanoparticles

The multifunctional capability of a proposed nanosystem is demonstrated by investigating the efficient Galunisertib delivery, the enhanced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition reversion in colorectal cancer cells and the intracellular quantification of drug release with a sub-femtogram resolution by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS).
[Small]
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HUTCHMED and AstraZeneca Initiate Phase II Trial of ORPATHYS® in Patients with MET Amplified Gastric Cancer

HUTCHMED Limited and AstraZeneca PLC have initiated a Phase II study of ORPATHYS®, an oral, potent, and highly selective small molecule inhibitor of MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase, in patients with advanced or metastatic MET amplified gastric cancer or adenocarcinoma of the gastroesophageal junction.
[HUTCHMED Limited]
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Palisade Bio and Newsoara Announce Positive Topline Efficacy Results from Phase II Study of LB1148 Demonstrating Accelerated Return of Bowel Function after Gastrointestinal Surgery

Palisade Bio, Inc. and co-development partner Newsoara announced positive topline Phase II clinical trial data that LB1148 had a statistically significant effect in accelerating the return of bowel function in patients undergoing elective bowel resection surgery.
[Palisade Bio, Inc.]
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Single-Cell Transcriptomics Reveals Immune Response of Intestinal Cell Types to Viral Infection

Investigators developed a framework combining single-cell RNA-Seq and highly multiplex RNA FISH and applied it to human intestinal organoids infected with human astrovirus, a model human enteric virus.
[EMBO Reports]
Single-cell transcriptomics reveals immune response of intestinal cell types to viral infection. (2021). Molecular Systems Biology, 17(7), e9833. https://doi.org/10.15252/msb.20209833 Cite
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Toxic Effects of Fluoride in Intestinal Epithelial Cells and the Mitigating Effect of Methanol Extract of Coconut Haustorium by Enhancing De Novo Glutathione Biosynthesis

The possible use of an emerging functional food-the coconut haustorium was evaluated against sodium fluoride-induced toxicity in intestinal cells. The cells exposed to fluoride showed significant cell death mediated through the increased lipid peroxidation and glutathione depletion.
[Environmental Research]
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B-Myb Accelerates Colorectal Cancer Progression through Reciprocal Feed-Forward Transactivation of E2F2

B-Myb overexpression accelerated cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and cell motility in colorectal cancer cells, and promoted tumor growth in orthotopic nude mouse models in vivo.
[Oncogene]
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