Chemical Conversion of Human Epidermal Stem Cells into Intestinal Goblet Cells for Modeling Mucus-Microbe Interaction and Therapy

The authors generated intestinal goblet cells from human epidermal stem cells with two small molecular inhibitors Repsox and CHIR99021 in the presence of basic fibroblast growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein 4 at high efficiency of conversion for a short time.
[Science Advances]
Zhao, A., Qin, H., Sun, M., Tang, M., Mei, J., Ma, K., & Fu, X. (2021). Chemical conversion of human epidermal stem cells into intestinal goblet cells for modeling mucus-microbe interaction and therapy. Science Advances, 7(16), eabb2213. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abb2213 Cite
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Repositioning Metformin and Propranolol for Colorectal and Triple Negative Breast Cancers Treatment

Scientists explored the effect of combining metformin and propranolol, two repositioned drugs, in colorectal cancer and TNBC tumor types.
[Scientific Reports]
Anselmino, L. E., Baglioni, M. V., Malizia, F., Laluce, N. C., Etichetti, C. B., Marignac, V. L. M., Rozados, V., Scharovsky, O. G., Girardini, J., Rico, M. J., & Márquez, M. M. (2021). Repositioning metformin and propranolol for colorectal and triple negative breast cancers treatment. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 8091. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-87525-z Cite
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Dickkopf-2 Regulates the Stem Cell Marker LGR5 in Colorectal Cancer via HNF4α1

Scientists report a Wnt ligand, Dickkopf-2 (DKK2) was essential for developing colorectal cancer stemness. Genetic depletion of Dkk2 in intestinal epithelial or stem cells reduced tumorigenesis as well as expression of the stem cell marker genes including Lgr5 in a model of colitis-associated cancer.
[iScience]
Shin, J. H., Jeong, J., Choi, J., Lim, J., Dinesh, R. K., Braverman, J., Hong, J. Y., Maher, S. E., Vesely, M. C. A., Kim, W., Koo, J.-H., Tang, W., Wu, D., Blackburn, H. N., Xicola, R. M., Llor, X., Yilmaz, O., Choi, J.-M., & Bothwell, A. L. M. (2021). Dickkopf-2 regulates the stem cell marker LGR5 in colorectal cancer via HNF4α1. IScience, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2021.102411 Cite
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miR-98-5p Inhibits Gastric Cancer Cell Stemness and Chemoresistance by Targeting Branched-Chain Aminotransferases 1

The expression of miR-98 in CD44+ gastric cancer stem cells (GCSCs) was verified by RT-PCR. The miR-98 was overexpressed in CD44+ GCSCs by Lentivirus.
[Life Sciences]
Zhan, P., Shu, X., Chen, M., Sun, L., Yu, L., Liu, J., Sun, L., Yang, Z., & Ran, Y. (2021). miR-98-5p inhibits gastric cancer cell stemness and chemoresistance by targeting branched-chain aminotransferases 1. Life Sciences, 276, 119405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119405 Cite
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Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Organoids Model SARS-CoV-2 Infection Revealing a Common Epithelial Inflammatory Response

Scientists report that SARS-CoV-2 productively infects both proximally and distally patterned human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived intestinal organoids , leading to the release of infectious viral particles while stimulating a robust transcriptomic response, including a significant upregulation of interferon-related genes that appeared to be conserved across multiple epithelial cell types.
[Stem Cell Reports]
Mithal, A., Hume, A. J., Lindstrom-Vautrin, J., Villacorta-Martin, C., Olejnik, J., Bullitt, E., Hinds, A., Mühlberger, E., & Mostoslavsky, G. (2021). Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Intestinal Organoids Model SARS-CoV-2 Infection Revealing a Common Epithelial Inflammatory Response. Stem Cell Reports, 16(4), 940–953. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.stemcr.2021.02.019 Cite
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Efferocytosis by Paneth Cells within the Intestine

Through a series of studies spanning in vitro efferocytosis, ex vivo intestinal organoids, and in vivo Cre-mediated deletion of Paneth cells, researchers showed that Paneth cells mediate apoptotic cell uptake of dying neighbors.
[Current Biology]
Ventayol, P. S., Geiser, P., Martino, M. L. D., Florbrant, A., Fattinger, S. A., Walder, N., Sima, E., Shao, F., Gekara, N. O., Sundbom, M., Hardt, W.-D., Webb, D.-L., Hellström, P. M., Eriksson, J., & Sellin, M. E. (2021). Bacterial detection by NAIP/NLRC4 elicits prompt contractions of intestinal epithelial cell layers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(16). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013963118 Cite
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Bacterial Detection by NAIP/NLRC4 Elicits Prompt Contractions of Intestinal Epithelial Cell Layers

Researchers showed that untransformed intestinal epithelial cell layers initiate immediate focal contractions, affecting hundreds to thousands of epithelial cells, in response to bacterial infection.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Ventayol, P. S., Geiser, P., Martino, M. L. D., Florbrant, A., Fattinger, S. A., Walder, N., Sima, E., Shao, F., Gekara, N. O., Sundbom, M., Hardt, W.-D., Webb, D.-L., Hellström, P. M., Eriksson, J., & Sellin, M. E. (2021). Bacterial detection by NAIP/NLRC4 elicits prompt contractions of intestinal epithelial cell layers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(16). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2013963118 Cite
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Morphological and Molecular Characteristics of Spheroid Formation in HT-29 and Caco-2 Colorectal Cancer Cell Lines

Colorectal cancer spheroids were developed using hanging drop and forced floating in serum-free and non-attachment conditions and their morphological features were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy.
[Cancer Cell International]
Gheytanchi, E., Naseri, M., Karimi-Busheri, F., Atyabi, F., Mirsharif, E. S., Bozorgmehr, M., Ghods, R., & Madjd, Z. (2021). Morphological and molecular characteristics of spheroid formation in HT-29 and Caco-2 colorectal cancer cell lines. Cancer Cell International, 21(1), 204. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12935-021-01898-9 Cite
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A Novel 4D Cell Culture Mimicking Stomach Peristalsis Altered Gastric Cancer Spheroids Growth and Malignance

Scientists leveraged a lab-developed four-dimensional culture model by a magnetic responsive alginate-based hydrogel to rotating magnets that can mimic stress stimuli in gastric cancer.
[Biofabrication]
Zhao, J., Wang, R., Zhang, J., Zhao, Y., Qiao, S., Crouzier, T., Yan, H., & Tian, W. (2021). A novel 4D cell culture mimicking stomach peristalsis altered gastric cancer spheroids growth and malignance. Biofabrication. https://doi.org/10.1088/1758-5090/abf6bf Cite
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Angiogenesis-Related Non-Coding RNAs and Gastrointestinal Cancer

Scientists discuss the role of ncRNAs in mediating angiogenesis in various types of gastrointestinal cancers and look forward to the introduction of mimetics and antagonists as possible therapeutic agents.
[Molecular Therapy-Oncolytics]
Razavi, Z. S., Asgarpour, K., Mahjoubin-Tehran, M., Rasouli, S., Khan, H., Shahrzad, M. K., Hamblin, M. R., & Mirzaei, H. (2021). Angiogenesis-related non-coding RNAs and gastrointestinal cancer. Molecular Therapy - Oncolytics, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.omto.2021.04.002 Cite
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Epithelial Sensing of Microbiota-Derived Signals

The authors highlight the pathways by which intestinal epithelial cells sense microbiota-derived signals and the necessity of these detection pathways in maintaining epithelial barrier integrity.
[Genes & Immunity]
Eshleman, E. M., & Alenghat, T. (2021). Epithelial sensing of microbiota-derived signals. Genes & Immunity, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41435-021-00124-w Cite
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