Control of Intestinal Epithelial Permeability by Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor 5

The authors determined the role of LPA receptor 5 (LPA5) in regulation of intestinal epithelial barrier. Human colonic epithelial cell lines were used to determine the LPA5-mediated signaling pathways that regulate epithelial barrier.
[Cellular and Molecular Gastroenterology and Hepatology]
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G-Protein Coupled Receptor 35 (GPR35) Regulates the Colonic Epithelial Cell Response to Enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis

Scientists identified that BFT signals through GPR35. Blocking GPR35 function in CECs using the GPR35 antagonist ML145, in conjunction with shRNA knock-down and CRISPRcas-mediated knock-out, resulted in reduced CEC-response to Bacteroides fragilis toxin.
[Communications Biology]
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Interplay between Transforming Growth Factor-β and Nur77 in Dual Regulations of Inhibitor of Differentiation 1 for Colonic Tumorigenesis

The authors showed that Nur77 enhanced TGFβ/Smad3-induced ID1 mRNA expression through hindering Smurf2-mediated Smad3 mono-ubiquitylation, resulting in ID1 upregulation.
[Nature Communications]
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The Loss of SHMT2 Mediates 5-Fluorouracil Chemoresistance in Colorectal Cancer by Upregulating Autophagy

Scientists identified serine hydroxymethyltransferase-2 (SHMT2) as a critical regulator of 5-FU chemoresistance in colorectal cancer.
[Oncogene]
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Characterization of an Engineered Live Bacterial Therapeutic for the Treatment of Phenylketonuria in a Human Gut-on-a-Chip

Gut-on-a-chip microfluidics technology presents an opportunity to characterize strain function within a simulated human gastrointestinal tract. The authors show how in vitro gut-chip models can be used to construct mechanistic models of strain activity and recapitulate the behavior of the engineered strain in a non-human primate model.
[Nature Communications]
Nelson, M. T., Charbonneau, M. R., Coia, H. G., Castillo, M. J., Holt, C., Greenwood, E. S., Robinson, P. J., Merrill, E. A., Lubkowicz, D., & Mauzy, C. A. (2021). Characterization of an engineered live bacterial therapeutic for the treatment of phenylketonuria in a human gut-on-a-chip. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2805. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23072-5 Cite
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LINGO3 Regulates Mucosal Tissue Regeneration and Promotes TFF2 Dependent Recovery from Colitis

The authors found that LINGO3 was broadly expressed on human enterocytes and sparsely on discrete cells within the crypt niche, that contained sintestinal stem cells.
[Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology]
Zullo, K. M., Douglas, B., Maloney, N. M., Ji, Y., Wei, Y., Herbine, K., Cohen, R., Pastore, C., Cramer, Z., Wang, X., Wei, W., Somsouk, M., Hung, L. Y., Lengner, C., Kohanski, M. H., Cohen, N. A., & Herbert, D. R. (2021). LINGO3 regulates mucosal tissue regeneration and promotes TFF2 dependent recovery from colitis. Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, 0(0), 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1080/00365521.2021.1917650 Cite
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Dynamic Adult Tracheal Plasticity Drives Stem Cell Adaptation to Changes in Intestinal Homeostasis in Drosophila

Researchers uncovered a previously unrecognized crosstalk between adult intestinal stem cells in Drosophila and the vasculature-like tracheal system, which is essential for intestinal regeneration.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Perochon, J., Yu, Y., Aughey, G. N., Medina, A. B., Southall, T. D., & Cordero, J. B. (2021). Dynamic adult tracheal plasticity drives stem cell adaptation to changes in intestinal homeostasis in Drosophila. Nature Cell Biology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00676-z Cite
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Remodelling of Oxygen-Transporting Tracheoles Drives Intestinal Regeneration and Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

The authors showed that the adult intestinal tracheae are dynamic and respond to enteric infection, oxidative agents and tumors with increased terminal branching.
[Nature Cell Biology]
Tamamouna, V., Rahman, M. M., Petersson, M., Charalambous, I., Kux, K., Mainor, H., Bolender, V., Isbilir, B., Edgar, B. A., & Pitsouli, C. (2021). Remodelling of oxygen-transporting tracheoles drives intestinal regeneration and tumorigenesis in Drosophila. Nature Cell Biology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41556-021-00674-1 Cite
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Critical Role of Interferons in Gastrointestinal Injury Repair

Researchers used IFN receptor-deficient mice in a dextran sulfate sodium model of acute intestinal injury to study the contributions of type I and III interferons to the initiation, progression and resolution of acute colitis.
[Nature Communications]
McElrath, C., Espinosa, V., Lin, J.-D., Peng, J., Sridhar, R., Dutta, O., Tseng, H.-C., Smirnov, S. V., Risman, H., Sandoval, M. J., Davra, V., Chang, Y.-J., Pollack, B. P., Birge, R. B., Galan, M., Rivera, A., Durbin, J. E., & Kotenko, S. V. (2021). Critical role of interferons in gastrointestinal injury repair. Nature Communications, 12(1), 2624. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-22928-0 Cite
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Indigo Enhances Wound Healing Activity of Caco-2 Cells via Activation of the Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor

The authors investigated the effects of indigo on wound closure in colon epithelial cells. Oral administration of indigo induced expression of Cytochrome P450 1A1 in the colon but not in the liver, suggesting that indigo stimulated AhR from the luminal side of the colon.
[Journal of Natural Medicines]
Shimizu, T., Takagi, C., Sawano, T., Eijima, Y., Nakatani, J., Fujita, T., & Tanaka, H. (2021). Indigo enhances wound healing activity of Caco-2 cells via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. Journal of Natural Medicines. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11418-021-01524-y Cite
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Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates the Intestinal Stem Cell State through CtBP2

Using a novel screening method, investigators identified novel transcription factors that regulated the intestinal stem cell fate upon endoplasmic reticulum stress.
[Scientific Reports]
Meijer, B. J., Smit, W. L., Koelink, P. J., Westendorp, B. F., de Boer, R. J., van der Meer, J. H. M., Vermeulen, J. L. M., Paton, J. C., Paton, A. W., Qin, J., Dekker, E., Muncan, V., van den Brink, G. R., & Heijmans, J. (2021). Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulates the intestinal stem cell state through CtBP2. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 9892. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-89326-w Cite
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