Not-So-Opposite Ends of the Spectrum: CD8+ T Cell Dysfunction across Chronic Infection, Cancer and Autoimmunity

A better understanding of these CD8+ T cell states may reveal novel strategies to augment clearance of chronic viral infection and cancer and to mitigate self-reactivity leading to tissue damage in autoimmunity.
[Nature Immunology]
Collier, J. L., Weiss, S. A., Pauken, K. E., Sen, D. R., & Sharpe, A. H. (2021). Not-so-opposite ends of the spectrum: CD8+ T cell dysfunction across chronic infection, cancer and autoimmunity. Nature Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00949-7 Cite
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Bifidobacteria-Mediated Immune System Imprinting Early in Life

Scientists showed that a lack of bifidobacteria, and in particular depletion of genes required for human milk oligosaccharide utilization from the metagenome, is associated with systemic inflammation and immune dysregulation early in life.
[Cell]
Henrick, B. M., Rodriguez, L., Lakshmikanth, T., Pou, C., Henckel, E., Arzoomand, A., Olin, A., Wang, J., Mikes, J., Tan, Z., Chen, Y., Ehrlich, A. M., Bernhardsson, A. K., Mugabo, C. H., Ambrosiani, Y., Gustafsson, A., Chew, S., Brown, H. K., Prambs, J., … Brodin, P. (2021). Bifidobacteria-mediated immune system imprinting early in life. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.030 Cite
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Regulatory T-Cell Phenotypes in Children with Sickle Cell Disease

The authors investigated the impact of hydroxyurea therapy on Tregs in sickle cell disease.
[Pediatric Research]
Zahran, A. M., Saad, K., Elsayh, K. I., Khalaf, S. M., Mahmoud, K. H., Elhoufey, A., & Hetta, H. F. (2021). Regulatory T-cell phenotypes in children with sickle cell disease. Pediatric Research, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01627-y Cite
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Targeting Regulator of G Protein Signaling 1 in Tumor-Specific T Cells Enhances Their Trafficking to Breast Cancer

Scientists found that upregulation of regulator of G protein signaling (RGS)1 in helper TH1 cells and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) reduced their trafficking to and survival in tumors and was associated with shorter survival of patients with breast and lung cancer.
[Nature Immunology]
Huang, D., Chen, X., Zeng, X., Lao, L., Li, J., Xing, Y., Lu, Y., Ouyang, Q., Chen, J., Yang, L., Su, F., Yao, H., Liu, Q., Su, S., & Song, E. (2021). Targeting regulator of G protein signaling 1 in tumor-specific T cells enhances their trafficking to breast cancer. Nature Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00939-9 Cite
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Kytopen Awarded NIH Grant of Up to $2M to Unlock the Power of Engineered Natural Killer (NK) Cells via Flowfect® Platform

Kytopen announced it was awarded a SBIR Fast Track grant from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), a part of the National Institute of Health. Kytopen is eligible for up to $2M over the course of the three-year award as project milestones are successfully completed within the Phase I and Phase II portions of the grant.
[Kytopen]
Press Release
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Genome Researchers Question Security Provisions in New US Senate Bill

Buried in a bill approved by the US Senate to help the United States compete with China is language that is drawing fire from human genome researchers. It would require the NIH to develop new security protocols aimed at preventing the misuse of US-funded genomic data by China and other nations.
[Science]
Editorial
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HIF-1α Is a Negative Regulator of Interferon Regulatory Factors: Implications for Interferon Production by Hypoxic Monocytes

To understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection, it is necessary to understand cell function during hypoxia. Researchers investigated aspects of human monocyte activation under hypoxic conditions.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Peng, T., Du, S.-Y., Son, M., & Diamond, B. (2021). HIF-1α is a negative regulator of interferon regulatory factors: Implications for interferon production by hypoxic monocytes. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 118(26). https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2106017118 Cite
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Tissue-Resident Macrophages Provide a Pro-tumorigenic Niche to Early NSCLC Cells

Researchers identified distinct populations of macrophages that were enriched in human and mouse lung tumors.
[Nature]
Casanova-Acebes, M., Dalla, E., Leader, A. M., LeBerichel, J., Nikolic, J., Morales, B. M., Brown, M., Chang, C., Troncoso, L., Chen, S. T., Sastre-Perona, A., Park, M. D., Tabachnikova, A., Dhainaut, M., Hamon, P., Maier, B., Sawai, C. M., Agulló-Pascual, E., Schober, M., … Merad, M. (2021). Tissue-resident macrophages provide a pro-tumorigenic niche to early NSCLC cells. Nature, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03651-8 Cite
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ctDNA Guiding Adjuvant Immunotherapy in Urothelial Carcinoma

Scientists evaluated outcomes in 581 patients who had undergone surgery and were evaluable for ctDNA from a randomized phase III trial of adjuvant atezolizumab versus observation in operable urothelial cancer.
[Nature]
Powles, T., Assaf, Z. J., Davarpanah, N., Banchereau, R., Szabados, B. E., Yuen, K. C., Grivas, P., Hussain, M., Oudard, S., Gschwend, J. E., Albers, P., Castellano, D., Nishiyama, H., Daneshmand, S., Sharma, S., Zimmermann, B. G., Sethi, H., Aleshin, A., Perdicchio, M., … Mariathasan, S. (2021). ctDNA guiding adjuvant immunotherapy in urothelial carcinoma. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03642-9 Cite
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MYC-Mediated Early Glycolysis Negatively Regulates Proinflammatory Responses by Controlling IRF4 in Inflammatory Macrophages

Metabolic and molecular analyses reveal that MYC, but not hypoxia inducible factor 1, was involved in enhancing early glycolytic flux during inflammatory macrophage polarization.
[Cell Reports]
Bae, S., Park, P. S. U., Lee, Y., Mun, S. H., Giannopoulou, E., Fujii, T., Lee, K. P., Violante, S. N., Cross, J. R., & Park-Min, K.-H. (2021). MYC-mediated early glycolysis negatively regulates proinflammatory responses by controlling IRF4 in inflammatory macrophages. Cell Reports, 35(11). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109264 Cite
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Maintenance of the Human Memory T Cell Repertoire by Subset and Tissue Site

Scientists showed that the human memory T cell repertoire comprised clones which persisted across sites and subsets, along with clones that were more restricted to certain subsets and/or tissue sites.
[Genome Medicine]
Miron, M., Meng, W., Rosenfeld, A. M., Dvorkin, S., Poon, M. M. L., Lam, N., Kumar, B. V., Louzoun, Y., Luning Prak, E. T., & Farber, D. L. (2021). Maintenance of the human memory T cell repertoire by subset and tissue site. Genome Medicine, 13(1), 100. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-021-00918-7 Cite
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