Follicular Lymphoma Triggers Phenotypic and Functional Remodeling of the Human Lymphoid Stromal Cell Landscape

Researchers examined the effect of B cell stimuli on lymphoid stromal cells in follicular lymphoma (FL). FL B cells interacted primarily with CD49a+ fibroblastic reticular cells.
[Immunity]
Mourcin, F., Verdière, L., Roulois, D., Amin, R., Lamaison, C., Sibut, V., Thamphya, B., Pangault, C., Monvoisin, C., Huet, S., Seffals, M., Baulande, S., Mechta-Grigoriou, F., Legoix, P., Rossille, D., Guirriec, M., Léonard, S., Cartron, G., Salles, G., … Tarte, K. (2021). Follicular lymphoma triggers phenotypic and functional remodeling of the human lymphoid stromal cell landscape. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2021.05.019 Cite
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CD86+ Antigen-Presenting B Cells Are Increased in Cancer, Localize in Tertiary Lymphoid Structures, and Induce Specific T-Cell Responses

Researchers used multicolor flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry to elucidate abundance and spatial distribution of these antigen-presenting B cells in blood and tumor samples of 238 cancer patients.
[Cancer Immunology Research]
CD86+ antigen-presenting B cells are increased in cancer, localize in tertiary lymphoid structures, and induce specific T-cell responses | Cancer Immunology Research. (n.d.). Retrieved June 22, 2021, from https://cancerimmunolres.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2021/06/21/2326-6066.CIR-20-0949 Cite
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Very-Low-Carbohydrate Diet Enhances Human T-cell Immunity through Immunometabolic Reprogramming

Scientists investigated this topic in an in vitro model using primary human T cells and in an immuno-nutritional intervention study enrolling healthy volunteers.
[EMBO Molecular Medicine]
Very‐low‐carbohydrate diet enhances human T‐cell immunity through immunometabolic reprogramming | EMBO Molecular Medicine. (n.d.). Retrieved June 22, 2021, from https://www.embopress.org/doi/full/10.15252/emmm.202114323 Cite
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The Immune Cell Landscape of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from PNS Patients

The authors analyzed the profiling of immune cells in the peripheral blood of steroid-sensitive nephrotic syndrome patients and steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome patients before and after standard steroid treatment to clarify the immunological mechanism of nephrotic syndrome patients.
[Scientific Reports]
The immune cell landscape of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from PNS patients | Scientific Reports. (n.d.). Retrieved June 22, 2021, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-92573-6 Cite
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Combination Therapy with CAR T Cells and Oncolytic Viruses: A New Era in Cancer Immunotherapy

Scientists made a comprehensive review on the outcomes resulted from the combination of CAR T-cell immunotherapy and oncolytic virotherapy for the treatment of solid cancers.
[Cancer Gene Therapy]
Rezaei, R., Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh, H., Farzanehpour, M., Dorostkar, R., Ranjbar, R., Bolandian, M., Mirzaei Nodooshan, M., & Ghorbani Alvanegh, A. (2021). Combination therapy with CAR T cells and oncolytic viruses: a new era in cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Gene Therapy, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41417-021-00359-9 Cite
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Cancer-Specific Immune Evasion and Substantial Heterogeneity within Cancer Types Provide Evidence for Personalized Immunotherapy

Investigators described elevated infiltration by regulatory T cells as the most common feature, while other lymphocyte subsets and also expression of immune-regulatory molecules on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes showed site-specific variation.
[npj Precision Oncology]
Thelen, M., Wennhold, K., Lehmann, J., Garcia-Marquez, M., Klein, S., Kochen, E., Lohneis, P., Lechner, A., Wagener-Ryczek, S., Plum, P. S., Velazquez Camacho, O., Pfister, D., Dörr, F., Heldwein, M., Hekmat, K., Beutner, D., Klussmann, J. P., Thangarajah, F., Ratiu, D., … Schlößer, H. A. (2021). Cancer-specific immune evasion and substantial heterogeneity within cancer types provide evidence for personalized immunotherapy. Npj Precision Oncology, 5(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41698-021-00196-x Cite
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Expansion of Tumor-Associated Treg Cells upon Disruption of a CTLA-4-Dependent Feedback Loop

Researchers found that the polyclonal Treg cell repertoire is pre-enriched to recognize antigens presented by tumor-associated conventional dendritic cells.
[Cell]
Marangoni, F., Zhakyp, A., Corsini, M., Geels, S. N., Carrizosa, E., Thelen, M., Mani, V., Prüßmann, J. N., Warner, R. D., Ozga, A. J., Pilato, M. D., Othy, S., & Mempel, T. R. (2021). Expansion of tumor-associated Treg cells upon disruption of a CTLA-4-dependent feedback loop. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.027 Cite
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Ionizing Radiation Curtails Immunosuppressive Effects from Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts on Dendritic Cells

Scientists investigated the effects of ionizing radiation on cancer-associated fibroblast (CAF)-mediated regulation of dendritic cells (DCs). CAFs were obtained from freshly operated lung cancer tissues, while DCs were procured from peripheral blood of healthy donors.
[Frontiers in Immunology]
Frontiers | Ionizing Radiation Curtails Immunosuppressive Effects From Cancer-Associated Fibroblasts on Dendritic Cells | Immunology. (n.d.). Retrieved June 21, 2021, from https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2021.662594/full Cite
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Interferon-γ: Teammate or Opponent in the Tumor Microenvironment?

Scientists review the cells that produce IFNγ and the different effects of IFNγ in the tumor microenvironment, highlighting the pleiotropic nature of this multifunctional and abundant cytokine.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Gocher, A. M., Workman, C. J., & Vignali, D. A. A. (2021). Interferon-γ: teammate or opponent in the tumour microenvironment? Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00566-3 Cite
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Not-So-Opposite Ends of the Spectrum: CD8+ T Cell Dysfunction across Chronic Infection, Cancer and Autoimmunity

A better understanding of these CD8+ T cell states may reveal novel strategies to augment clearance of chronic viral infection and cancer and to mitigate self-reactivity leading to tissue damage in autoimmunity.
[Nature Immunology]
Collier, J. L., Weiss, S. A., Pauken, K. E., Sen, D. R., & Sharpe, A. H. (2021). Not-so-opposite ends of the spectrum: CD8+ T cell dysfunction across chronic infection, cancer and autoimmunity. Nature Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-021-00949-7 Cite
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Bifidobacteria-Mediated Immune System Imprinting Early in Life

Scientists showed that a lack of bifidobacteria, and in particular depletion of genes required for human milk oligosaccharide utilization from the metagenome, is associated with systemic inflammation and immune dysregulation early in life.
[Cell]
Henrick, B. M., Rodriguez, L., Lakshmikanth, T., Pou, C., Henckel, E., Arzoomand, A., Olin, A., Wang, J., Mikes, J., Tan, Z., Chen, Y., Ehrlich, A. M., Bernhardsson, A. K., Mugabo, C. H., Ambrosiani, Y., Gustafsson, A., Chew, S., Brown, H. K., Prambs, J., … Brodin, P. (2021). Bifidobacteria-mediated immune system imprinting early in life. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.05.030 Cite
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