Engineering CAR-T Cells for Next-Generation Cancer Therapy

Investigators highlight recent strategies to improve chimeric antigen therapy (CAR)-T cell therapy by engineering the CAR protein, T cells, and the interaction between T cells and other components in the tumor microenvironment.
[Cancer Cell]
Hong, M., Clubb, J. D., & Chen, Y. Y. (2020). Engineering CAR-T Cells for Next-Generation Cancer Therapy. Cancer Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ccell.2020.07.005 Cite
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MSCs-Released TGFβ1 Generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ in T-Reg Cells of Human SLE PBMC

The authors used a post-test control group design. MSCs were obtained from human umbilical cord blood and characterized according to their surface antigen expression and multilineage differentiation capacities.
[Journal of the Formosan Medical Association]
Darlan, D. M., Munir, D., Putra, A., & Jusuf, N. K. (2020). MSCs-released TGFβ1 generate CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ in T-reg cells of human SLE PBMC. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jfma.2020.06.028 Cite
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Alteration of Immunophenotype of Human Macrophages and Monocytes after Exposure to Cigarette Smoke

Using human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) from healthy donors, researchers found that cigarette smoke exposure was not associated with significant changes in the production of pro inflammatory cytokines by MDMs.
[Scientific Reports]
da Silva, C. O., Gicquel, T., Daniel, Y., Bártholo, T., Vène, E., Loyer, P., Pôrto, L. C., Lagente, V., & Victoni, T. (2020). Alteration of immunophenotype of human macrophages and monocytes after exposure to cigarette smoke. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12796. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68753-1 Cite
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An Activity-Guided Map of Electrophile-Cysteine Interactions in Primary Human T Cells

Researchers present a global map of cysteines in primary human T cells that are susceptible to covalent modification by electrophilic small molecules.
[Cell]
da Silva, C. O., Gicquel, T., Daniel, Y., Bártholo, T., Vène, E., Loyer, P., Pôrto, L. C., Lagente, V., & Victoni, T. (2020). Alteration of immunophenotype of human macrophages and monocytes after exposure to cigarette smoke. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12796. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-68753-1 Cite
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The Immunology of Renal Cell Carcinoma

Renal cell carcinoma is considered to be an immunogenic tumor but is known to mediate immune dysfunction in large part by eliciting the infiltration of immune-inhibitory cells, such as regulatory T cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells, into the tumor microenvironment.
[Nature Reviews Nephrology]
Díaz-Montero, C. M., Rini, B. I., & Finke, J. H. (2020). The immunology of renal cell carcinoma. Nature Reviews Nephrology, 1–15. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41581-020-0316-3 Cite
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Strategic Alliance a Shot in the Arm for Stem Cell Commercialization Efforts

Several Canadian-made cell therapies will take a major step closer to the clinic thanks to a new collaboration between the Ontario Institute for Regenerative Medicine and the Centre for Commercialization of Cancer Immunotherapy and Regenerative Medicine.
[Ontario Institute for Regenerative Medicine]
Press Release

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Targeting CD39 in Cancer

The authors review the impact of CD39 expression and ectonucleotidase activity on immunity with a focus on the setting of oncology.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
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Single-Cell Mass Cytometry on Peripheral Blood Identifies Immune Cell Subsets Associated with Primary Biliary Cholangitis

Mass cytometry was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from primary biliary cholangitis patients and age-/sex-matched healthy controls to obtain immune cell abundance and marker expression profiles.
[Scientific Reports]
Jang, J. S., Juran, B. D., Cunningham, K. Y., Gupta, V. K., Son, Y. M., Yang, J. D., Ali, A. H., Enninga, E. A. L., Sung, J., & Lazaridis, K. N. (2020). Single-cell mass cytometry on peripheral blood identifies immune cell subsets associated with primary biliary cholangitis. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12584. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69358-4 Cite
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Induction of Macrophage-Like Immunosuppressive Cells from Common Marmoset ES Cells by Stepwise Differentiation with DZNep

Investigators established the induction protocol of immunosuppressive cells from common marmoset ES cells. Although similar immunosuppressive macrophages could not be induced by same protocol as that for mouse pluripotent stem cells, they employed an inhibitor for histone methyltransferase, DZNep, and succeeded to induce them.
[Scientific Reports]
Tsuji, H., Otsuka, R., Wada, H., Murata, T., Sasaki, A., Itoh, M., Baghdadi, M., Sasaki, E., & Seino, K. (2020). Induction of macrophage-like immunosuppressive cells from common marmoset ES cells by stepwise differentiation with DZNep. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12625. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69690-9 Cite
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α-Hemolysin of Uropathogenic E. coli Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in THP-1 Macrophages

Researchers studied the role of purified recombinant α-hemolysin in inducing inflammatory responses and cell death in macrophages.
[Scientific Reports]
Verma, V., Kumar, P., Gupta, S., Yadav, S., Dhanda, R. S., Thorlacius, H., & Yadav, M. (2020). α-Hemolysin of uropathogenic E. coli regulates NLRP3 inflammasome activation and mitochondrial dysfunction in THP-1 macrophages. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 12653. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-69501-1 Cite
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CD4 T Cell-Intrinsic Role for the T Helper 17 Signature Cytokine IL-17: Effector Resistance to Immune Suppression

The authors demonstrated that human CD4+ T cells exposed to a Th17-differentiating milieu were significantly more resistant to immune suppression by CD8+ T cells compared to control Th0 cells.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Crawford, M. P., Sinha, S., Renavikar, P. S., Borcherding, N., & Karandikar, N. J. (2020). CD4 T cell-intrinsic role for the T helper 17 signature cytokine IL-17: Effector resistance to immune suppression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2005010117 Cite
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3D Bioprinting for Reconstituting the Cancer Microenvironment

Scientists discuss the applications of 3D bioprinting in mimicking cancer microenvironment, their use in immunotherapy as prescreening tools, and overview of current bioprinted cancer models.
[npj precision oncology]
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