Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics Impair T Cell Effector Function and Ameliorate Autoimmunity by Blocking Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis

Scientists showed that Linezolid, a ribosomal-targeting antibiotic (RAbo), effectively blocked the course of a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease.
[Immunity]
Almeida, L., Dhillon-LaBrooy, A., Castro, C. N., Adossa, N., Carriche, G. M., Guderian, M., Lippens, S., Dennerlein, S., Hesse, C., Lambrecht, B. N., Berod, L., Schauser, L., Blazar, B. R., Kalesse, M., Müller, R., Moita, L. F., & Sparwasser, T. (2020). Ribosome-Targeting Antibiotics Impair T Cell Effector Function and Ameliorate Autoimmunity by Blocking Mitochondrial Protein Synthesis. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.001 Cite
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Hyal2 Expression in Tumor-Associated Myeloid Cells Mediates Cancer-Related Inflammation in Bladder Cancer

Researchers describe a novel function of tumor-associated myeloid cells related to the enhanced breakdown of extracellular hyaluronan (HA) in human bladder cancer tissue, leading to the accumulation of small HA fragments with MW <20 kDa.
[Cancer Research]
Gutierrez, P. R. D., Kwenda, E. P., Donelan, W., O’Malley, P., Crispen, P. L., & Kusmartsev, S. (2020). Hyal2 expression in tumor-associated myeloid cells mediates cancer-related inflammation in bladder cancer. Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-20-1144 Cite
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Liver Immune Profiling Reveals Pathogenesis and Therapeutics for Biliary Atresia

Scientists discovered that hepatic B cell lymphopoiesis did not cease after birth and that tolerance defects contributed to immunoglobulin G-autoantibody accumulation in biliary atresia.
[Cell]
Wang, J., Xu, Y., Chen, Z., Liang, J., Lin, Z., Liang, H., Xu, Y., Wu, Q., Guo, X., Nie, J., Lu, B., Huang, B., Xian, H., Wang, X., Wu, Q., Zeng, J., Chai, C., Zhang, M., Lin, Y., … Zhang, Y. (2020). Liver Immune Profiling Reveals Pathogenesis and Therapeutics for Biliary Atresia. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2020.10.048 Cite
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Novel Human Immunomodulatory T Cell Receptors and Their Double-Edged Potential in Autoimmunity, Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer

Scientists discuss the roles of immunomodulatory receptors in the control of immunity from a perspective focused on therapeutic potential in not only cancer but also autoimmune diseases.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Martín, P., Blanco-Domínguez, R., & Sánchez-Díaz, R. (2020). Novel human immunomodulatory T cell receptors and their double-edged potential in autoimmunity, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–17. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00586-4 Cite
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Immunobiology and Immunotherapy of HCC: Spotlight on Innate and Innate-Like Immune Cells

The liver is an immunologic organ with large populations of innate and innate-like immune cells and is exposed to bacterial, viral, and fungal antigens through the gut–liver axis. Scientists summarize and highlight the role of these cells in liver cancer and propose strategies to therapeutically target them.
[Cellular & Molecular Immunology]
Ruf, B., Heinrich, B., & Greten, T. F. (2020). Immunobiology and immunotherapy of HCC: spotlight on innate and innate-like immune cells. Cellular & Molecular Immunology, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41423-020-00572-w Cite
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Gain Therapeutics and University of Maryland School of Medicine Announce Research Collaboration

Gain Therapeutics, Inc. announced a research collaboration with the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM), to investigate Gain’s structurally targeted allosteric regulators (STARs) in cellular models of neuronopathic Gaucher disease and Parkinson’s disease. STARs are proprietary small molecules targeting novel allosteric binding sites on enzymes.
[Gain Therapeutics, Inc. (Globe Newswire, Inc.)]
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Myeloid Cell-Targeted STAT3 Inhibition Sensitizes Head and Neck Cancers to Radiotherapy and T Cell-Mediated Immunity

Local injections of myeloid cell-targeted STAT3 antisense oligonucleotide activated human DCs/macrophages, promoted CD8 T-cell recruitment and thereby arrested UM-SCC1 tumor growth.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Moreira, D., Sampath, S., Won, H., White, S. V., Su, Y.-L., Alcantara, M., Wang, C., Lee, P. P., Maghami, E., Massarelli, E., & Kortylewski, M. (2020). Myeloid cell-targeted STAT3 inhibition sensitizes head and neck cancers to radiotherapy and T cell-mediated immunity. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI137001 Cite
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Eradication of T-ALL Cells by CD7 Targeted Universal CAR-T Cells and Initial Test of Ruxolitinib-Based CRS Management

Scientists conducted two clinical trials to verify the safety and efficacy of GC027, an “off-the-shelf” allogeneic CAR-T product targeting T cell antigen CD7. Here we report two patients as case reports with relapsed/refractory T-ALL who were treated with GC027.
[Clinical Cancer Research]
Li, S., Wang, X., Yuan, Z., Liu, L., Luo, L., Li, Y., Wu, K., Liu, J., Yang, C., Li, Z., Wang, D., Shen, L., Ye, X., He, J., Han, C., Wang, Y., Zhang, D., Dong, Y., Fang, L., … Wang, S. (2020). Eradication of T-ALL cells by CD7 targeted universal CAR-T cells and initial test of ruxolitinib-based CRS management. Clinical Cancer Research. https://doi.org/10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-20-1271 Cite
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Donor-Derived Anti-CD19 CAR T Cells Compared with Donor Lymphocyte Infusion for Recurrent B-ALL after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

Thirteen B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with relapsed after allo-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and thus were treated with donor-derived anti-CD19 CAR T-cell.
[Bone Marrow Transplantation]
Hua, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Wu, X., Zhou, L., Bao, X., Han, Y., Miao, M., Li, C., Fu, C., Chen, S., Tang, X., Wu, D., & Qiu, H. (2020). Donor-derived anti-CD19 CAR T cells compared with donor lymphocyte infusion for recurrent B-ALL after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplantation, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41409-020-01140-6 Cite
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Chemotherapy-Induced Changes in Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid CD4+ and CD8+ Cells of the Opposite Lung to the Cancer

Researchers explored the effect of chemotherapy on CD4+ and CD8+ cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of the healthy lung in patients treated with standard chemotherapy regimens.
[Scientific Reports]
Karpathiou, G., Mihailidis, V., Nakou, E., Anevlavis, S., Tzouvelekis, A., Kouliatsis, G., Ntolios, P., Bouros, D., Kotsianidis, I., & Froudarakis, M. E. (2020). Chemotherapy-induced changes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid CD4 + and CD8 + cells of the opposite lung to the cancer. Scientific Reports, 10(1), 19927. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-76752-5 Cite
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Co-Delivery of Resolvin D1 and Antibiotics with Nanovesicles to Lungs Resolves Inflammation and Clears Bacteria in Mice

Investigators proposed a strategy to incorporate RvD1 and an antibiotic in human neutrophil-membrane derived nanovesicles that could specifically target inflamed vasculature for treatment of lung infection caused by P. aeruginosa.
[Communications Biology]
Gao, J., Wang, S., Dong, X., Leanse, L. G., Dai, T., & Wang, Z. (2020). Co-delivery of resolvin D1 and antibiotics with nanovesicles to lungs resolves inflammation and clears bacteria in mice. Communications Biology, 3(1), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01410-5 Cite
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