PIWI-Interacting RNA in Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Possible Clinical Implications (Review)

The authors highlight the latest research progress made in the biological functions and regulation of PIWI‑interacting RNA in mammals, their involvement in various cancer forms and their potential clinical applications.
[Oncology Reports]
Yuan, C., Qin, H., Ponnusamy, M., Chen, Y., & Lin, Z. (2021). PIWI‑interacting RNA in cancer: Molecular mechanisms and possible clinical implications (Review). Oncology Reports, 46(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8160 Cite
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The Synergistic Anticancer Traits of Graphene Oxide Plus Doxorubicin Against BT474 and MCF7 Breast Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro

Different concentrations of doxorubicin (DOX), graphene oxide, and graphene oxide plus doxorubicin (GO-DOX) were subjected to MCF7 and BT474 human breast cancer cells at specified intervals.
[Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology]
Ebrahimi, M., Teimouri, M., & Pooladi, M. (2021). The Synergistic Anticancer Traits of Graphene Oxide Plus Doxorubicin Against BT474 and MCF7 Breast Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro. Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12010-021-03623-8 Cite
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A Novel Chemical Inhibitor Suppresses Breast Cancer Cell Growth and Metastasis through Inhibiting HPIP Oncoprotein

The authors screened compounds inhibiting breast cancer cell proliferation with hematopoietic PBX-interacting protein (HPIP) fused with green fluorescent protein as a reporter. A novel agent named TXX-1-10 derived from rimonabant was discovered to reduce HPIP expression and had greater inhibitory effects on breast cancer cell growth and metastasis in vitro and in vivo than rimonabant.
[Cell Death Discovery]
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HER2 Activation and Endocrine Treatment Resistance in HER2-Negative Breast Cancer

To understand stratifiers, it is important that the field invests in key understudied areas of research including characterization of the tumor secretome and receptor activation in response to endocrine treatment, and mapping the ER-HER2-growth factor network in the normal and developing mammary gland.
[Endocrinology]
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A Prospective Study Revealing the Role of an Immune-Related eRNA, WAKMAR2, in Breast Cancer

Investigators focused on the crucial enhancer RNAs that participate in immune responses in invasive breast cancer.
[Scientific Reports]
Wang, L., Liu, J., Tai, J., Zhou, N., Huang, T., Xue, Y., & Quan, Z. (2021). A prospective study revealing the role of an immune-related eRNA, WAKMAR2, in breast cancer. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 15328. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-94784-3 Cite
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Sublethal Doxorubicin Promotes Migration and Invasion of Breast Cancer Cells: Role of Src Family Non-Receptor Tyrosine Kinases

Researchers showed that sublethal doxorubicin treatment led to increased migration and invasion in otherwise non-invasive MCF7 breast cancer cells.
[Breast Cancer Research]
Mohammed, S., Shamseddine, A. A., Newcomb, B., Chavez, R. S., Panzner, T. D., Lee, A. H., Canals, D., Okeoma, C. M., Clarke, C. J., & Hannun, Y. A. (2021). Sublethal doxorubicin promotes migration and invasion of breast cancer cells: role of Src Family non-receptor tyrosine kinases. Breast Cancer Research, 23(1), 76. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13058-021-01452-5 Cite
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LINC00337 Induces Tumor Development and Chemoresistance to Paclitaxel of Breast Cancer by Recruiting M2 Tumor-Associated Macrophages

Investigators focused on the potential involvement and mechanism of LINC00337 in breast cancer (BCa). High-expressed LINC00337 accelerated viability and proliferation of BCa cells, improved the resistance of BCa cells to paclitaxel, and accelerated tumor growth.
[Molecular Immunology]
Xing, Z., Zhang, M., Liu, J., Liu, G., Feng, K., & Wang, X. (2021). LINC00337 induces tumor development and chemoresistance to paclitaxel of breast cancer by recruiting M2 tumor-associated macrophages. Molecular Immunology, 138, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molimm.2021.07.009 Cite
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MICAL1 Regulates Actin Cytoskeleton Organization, Directional Cell Migration and the Growth of Human Breast Cancer Cells as Orthotopic Xenograft Tumours

MICAL1 gene disruption by CRISPR/Cas9 in MDA MB 231 human breast cancer cells knocked out protein expression, which affected F-actin organization, cell size and motility.
[Cancer Letters]
McGarry, D. J., Armstrong, G., Castino, G., Mason, S., Clark, W., Shaw, R., McGarry, L., Blyth, K., & Olson, M. F. (2021). MICAL1 regulates actin cytoskeleton organization, directional cell migration and the growth of human breast cancer cells as orthotopic xenograft tumours. Cancer Letters, 519, 226–236. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.canlet.2021.07.039 Cite
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Mutant p53 Attenuates Oxidative Phosphorylation and Facilitates Cancer Stemness through Downregulating microRNA-200c-PCK2 Axis in Basal-Like Breast Cancer

The authors demonstrated that CRISPR-mediated knockout of miR-200c induced metabolic features similar to the metabolic rewiring caused by p53 hot-spot mutations, and that impairing this metabolic reprogramming interfered with miR-200c deficiency-induced stemness and transformation.
[Molecular Cancer Research]
Mutant p53 attenuates oxidative phosphorylation and facilitates cancer stemness through downregulating microRNA-200c-PCK2 axis in basal-like breast cancer | Molecular Cancer Research. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2021, from https://mcr.aacrjournals.org/content/early/2021/07/26/1541-7786.MCR-21-0098 Cite
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Single-Cell Immunoblotting Resolves Estrogen Receptor-α Isoforms in Breast Cancer

To scrutinize hormone response heterogeneity among breast cancer (BCa) tumor cells, scientists developed a precision tool to specifically measure estrogen receptor alpha (ER-α)-66, ER-α46, and eight ER-signaling proteins with single-cell resolution in the highly hetero-clonal MCF-7 BCa cell line.
[PLoS One]
Single-cell immunoblotting resolves estrogen receptor-α isoforms in breast cancer. (n.d.). Retrieved July 28, 2021, from https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0254783 Cite
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Molecular Imaging Reveals a High Degree of Cross-Seeding of Spontaneous Metastases in a Novel Mouse Model of Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancer

Researchers engineered human breast cancer cells to express either Akaluc or Antares2 for bioluminescence imaging and tdTomato or zsGreen for ex vivo fluorescence microscopy.
[Molecular Imaging and Biology]
Liu, S., Nyström, N. N., Kelly, J. J., Hamilton, A. M., Fu, Y., & Ronald, J. A. (2021). Molecular Imaging Reveals a High Degree of Cross-Seeding of Spontaneous Metastases in a Novel Mouse Model of Synchronous Bilateral Breast Cancer. Molecular Imaging and Biology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11307-021-01630-z Cite
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