Distinct Antibody and Memory B Cell Responses in SARS-CoV-2 Naïve and Recovered Individuals Following mRNA Vaccination

Researchers showed that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome-like damages in vitro and in vivo.
[Science Immunology]
Goel, R. R., Apostolidis, S. A., Painter, M. M., Mathew, D., Pattekar, A., Kuthuru, O., Gouma, S., Hicks, P., Meng, W., Rosenfeld, A. M., Dysinger, S., Lundgreen, K. A., Kuri-Cervantes, L., Adamski, S., Hicks, A., Korte, S., Oldridge, D. A., Baxter, A. E., Giles, J. R., … Wherry, E. J. (2021). Distinct antibody and memory B cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 naïve and recovered individuals following mRNA vaccination. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abi6950 Cite
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Structural Specificities of Cell Surface β-Glucan Polysaccharides Determine Commensal Yeast Mediated Immuno-Modulatory Activities

MGCP, in contrast to previously identified microbial cell surface polysaccharides, through a Dectin1-Cox2 signaling axis in dendritic cells, facilitates regulatory T cell induction from naïve T cells.
[Nature Communications]
Lee, C., Verma, R., Byun, S., Jeun, E.-J., Kim, G.-C., Lee, S., Kang, H.-J., Kim, C. J., Sharma, G., Lahiri, A., Paul, S., Kim, K. S., Hwang, D. S., Iwakura, Y., Speciale, I., Molinaro, A., De Castro, C., Rudra, D., & Im, S.-H. (2021). Structural specificities of cell surface β-glucan polysaccharides determine commensal yeast mediated immuno-modulatory activities. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3611. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23929-9 Cite
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Glycan Reactive Anti-HIV-1 Antibodies Bind the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein but Do Not Block Viral Entry

Scientists report that antibodies that displayed high levels of cross-reactivity with the SARS-CoV-2 spike, were incapable of neutralizing pseudoviruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins and were unlikely to mediate ADE via FcγRII receptor engagement.
[Scientific Reports]
Mannar, D., Leopold, K., & Subramaniam, S. (2021). Glycan reactive anti-HIV-1 antibodies bind the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein but do not block viral entry. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12448. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91746-7 Cite
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Monocyte Metabolic Transcriptional Programs Associate with Resistance to Tuberculin Skin Test/Interferon-γ Release Assay Conversion

To identify mechanisms of resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, scientists compared transcriptional profiles from highly-exposed contacts who resist tuberculin skin test/interferon-γ release assay conversion and controls with latent Mtb infection using RNAseq.
[Journal of Clinical Investigation]
Simmons, J. D., Van, P. T., Stein, C. M., Chihota, V., Ntshiqa, T., Maenetje, P., Peterson, G. J., Reynolds, A., Benchek, P., Velen, K., Fielding, K. L., Grant, A. D., Graustein, A. D., Nguyen, F. K., Seshadri, C., Gottardo, R., Mayanja-Kizza, H., Wallis, R. S., Churchyard, G., … Hawn, T. R. (2021). Monocyte metabolic transcriptional programs associate with resistance to tuberculin skin test/interferon-γ release assay conversion. The Journal of Clinical Investigation. https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI140073 Cite
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Memory B Cells Targeting SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein and Their Dependence on CD4+ T Cell Help

Scientists investigated SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific memory B cells and their dependence on CD4+ T cell help in different settings of COVID-19.
[Cell Reports]
Pušnik, J., Richter, E., Schulte, B., Dolscheid-Pommerich, R., Bode, C., Putensen, C., Hartmann, G., Alter, G., & Streeck, H. (2021). Memory B cells targeting SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and their dependence on CD4+ T cell help. Cell Reports, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109320 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 RBD Trimer Protein Adjuvanted with Alum-3M-052 Protects from SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Immune Pathology in the Lung

Scientists developed a trimeric form of the receptor binding domain and showed that it induces a potent neutralizing antibody response against live virus with diverse effector functions and provided protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge in mice and rhesus macaques.
[Nature Communications]
Routhu, N. K., Cheedarla, N., Bollimpelli, V. S., Gangadhara, S., Edara, V. V., Lai, L., Sahoo, A., Shiferaw, A., Styles, T. M., Floyd, K., Fischinger, S., Atyeo, C., Shin, S. A., Gumber, S., Kirejczyk, S., Dinnon, K. H., Shi, P.-Y., Menachery, V. D., Tomai, M., … Amara, R. R. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 RBD trimer protein adjuvanted with Alum-3M-052 protects from SARS-CoV-2 infection and immune pathology in the lung. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3587. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23942-y Cite
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Molecular Mechanism of Interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and Host Cells and Interventional Therapy

Scientists review the current knowledge and crucial information about how SARS-CoV-2 attaches on the surface of host cells through a variety of receptors, such as ACE2, neuropilin-1, AXL, and antibody–FcγR complexes.
[Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy]
Zhang, Q., Xiang, R., Huo, S., Zhou, Y., Jiang, S., Wang, Q., & Yu, F. (2021). Molecular mechanism of interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host cells and interventional therapy. Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy, 6(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41392-021-00653-w Cite
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Natural Killer Cells in Antiviral Immunity

The authors review recent insights into the role of NK cells in viral infections, with particular emphasis on human studies.
[Nature Reviews Immunology]
Björkström, N. K., Strunz, B., & Ljunggren, H.-G. (2021). Natural killer cells in antiviral immunity. Nature Reviews Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41577-021-00558-3 Cite
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SARS-CoV-2 Envelope Protein Causes Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS)-Like Pathological Damages and Constitutes an Antiviral Target

Researchers showed that the SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein alone is able to cause acute respiratory distress syndrome-like damages in vitro and in vivo.
[Cell Research]
Xia, B., Shen, X., He, Y., Pan, X., Liu, F.-L., Wang, Y., Yang, F., Fang, S., Wu, Y., Duan, Z., Zuo, X., Xie, Z., Jiang, X., Xu, L., Chi, H., Li, S., Meng, Q., Zhou, H., Zhou, Y., … Gao, Z. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 envelope protein causes acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)-like pathological damages and constitutes an antiviral target. Cell Research, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41422-021-00519-4 Cite
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Twist Bioscience Begins Shipping of Synthetic RNA Controls for Kappa (B.1.617.1) SARS-CoV-2 Variants for Development of Accurate Tests

Twist Bioscience Corporation announced that it has started shipping its synthetic RNA reference controls for the SARS-CoV-2 Kappa variant strain.
[Twist Bioscience Corporation (BusinessWire, Inc.)]
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Crestone, Inc. Enrolls First Patient in Phase II Clinical Trial for Novel Antibiotic CRS3123 to Treat C. difficile Infections

Crestone, Inc. announced the first patient has been enrolled in a Phase II clinical trial of CRS3123 for the treatment of Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI).
[Crestone, Inc. (BusinessWire, Inc.)]
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