VAXIL BIO LTD. announced that it has entered into a cooperative research and development agreement with USAMRIID under which USAMRIID will test CorVax™ for its ability to specifically prevent COVID-19 in mice.
[VAXIL BIO LTD. (GlobeNewswire, Inc.)]
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Researchers focus on direct and indirect interactions between bacteria and B cells and how such interactions regulate B-cell phenotype, namely antibody production and regulatory B-cell function.
Investigators showed that the cytosolic pattern recognition receptor Nod-like Receptor CARD 4 suppressed, rather than facilitated, effector and memory CD4+ T-cell responses against Salmonella in mice.
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Tourlomousis, P., Wright, J. A., Bittante, A. S., Hopkins, L. J., Webster, S. J., Bryant, O. J., Mastroeni, P., Maskell, D. J., & Bryant, C. E. (2020). Modifying bacterial flagellin to evade Nod-like Receptor CARD 4 recognition enhances protective immunity against Salmonella. Nature Microbiology, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41564-020-00801-y Cite
By mapping the long-term development of CD8+ T cell families derived from single naive precursors, scientists found that fate decisions made during the acute phase of murine cytomegalovirus infection could alter the level of memory inflation by more than 1,000-fold.
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Grassmann, S., Mihatsch, L., Mir, J., Kazeroonian, A., Rahimi, R., Flommersfeld, S., Schober, K., Hensel, I., Leube, J., Pachmayr, L. O., Kretschmer, L., Zhang, Q., Jolly, A., Chaudhry, M. Z., Schiemann, M., Cicin-Sain, L., Höfer, T., Busch, D. H., Flossdorf, M., & Buchholz, V. R. (2020). Early emergence of T central memory precursors programs clonal dominance during chronic viral infection. Nature Immunology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41590-020-00807-y Cite
Scientists showed that low levels of P. falciparum parasites persist in the blood of asymptomatic Malian individuals during the five to six month dry season, rarely causing symptoms and minimally affecting the host immune response.
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Andrade, C. M., Fleckenstein, H., Thomson-Luque, R., Doumbo, S., Lima, N. F., Anderson, C., Hibbert, J., Hopp, C. S., Tran, T. M., Li, S., Niangaly, M., Cisse, H., Doumtabe, D., Skinner, J., Sturdevant, D., Ricklefs, S., Virtaneva, K., Asghar, M., Homann, M. V., … Portugal, S. (2020). Increased circulation time of Plasmodium falciparum underlies persistent asymptomatic infection in the dry season. Nature Medicine, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1084-0 Cite
Researchers present crystal structures of BBRF2 alone and in complex with BSRF1. BBRF2 has a compact globular architecture featuring a central β-sheet that is surrounded by ten helices, it represented a novel fold distinct from other known protein structures.
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Structure of Epstein-Barr virus tegument protein complex BBRF2-BSRF1 reveals its potential role in viral envelopment | Nature Communications. (n.d.). Retrieved October 27, 2020, from https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-020-19259-x Cite
By analyzing more than 500 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) derived from B cells induced by numerous influenza virus vaccines and infections, we found mAbs targeting conserved neutralizing influenza virus hemagglutinin epitopes were polyreactive.
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Guthmiller, J. J., Lan, L. Y.-L., Fernández-Quintero, M. L., Han, J., Utset, H. A., Bitar, D. J., Hamel, N. J., Stovicek, O., Li, L., Tepora, M., Henry, C., Neu, K. E., Dugan, H. L., Borowska, M. T., Chen, Y.-Q., Liu, S. T. H., Stamper, C. T., Zheng, N.-Y., Huang, M., … Wilson, P. C. (2020). Polyreactive Broadly Neutralizing B cells Are Selected to Provide Defense against Pandemic Threat Influenza Viruses. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.005 Cite
Scientists showed that human endogenous retroviruses activation in tumors leads to the up-regulation of hundreds of transcriptional suppressors, namely, Krüppel-associated box domain–containing zinc-finger family proteins.
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Ito, J., Kimura, I., Soper, A., Coudray, A., Koyanagi, Y., Nakaoka, H., Inoue, I., Turelli, P., Trono, D., & Sato, K. (2020). Endogenous retroviruses drive KRAB zinc-finger protein family expression for tumor suppression. Science Advances, 6(43), eabc3020. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.abc3020 Cite
Scientists used an unbiased, genome-wide screening technology to determine the precise peptide sequences in SARS-CoV-2 that are recognized by the memory CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients.
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Ferretti, A. P., Kula, T., Wang, Y., Nguyen, D. M. V., Weinheimer, A., Dunlap, G. S., Xu, Q., Nabilsi, N., Perullo, C. R., Cristofaro, A. W., Whitton, H. J., Virbasius, A., Olivier, K. J., Buckner, L. R., Alistar, A. T., Whitman, E. D., Bertino, S. A., Chattopadhyay, S., & MacBeath, G. (2020). Unbiased screens show CD8+ T cells of COVID-19 patients recognize shared epitopes in SARS-CoV-2, most of which are not located in the Spike protein. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.10.006 Cite
Scientists explore how self-amplifying RNAs are emerging as important vaccine candidates for infectious diseases, the advantages of synthetic manufacturing approaches, and their potential for preventing and treating chronic infections.
The authors discuss the mechanisms exploited by Gram-positive bacteria to circumvent killing by antimicrobial peptides. Specifically, the most clinically relevant genera, Streptococcus spp., Staphylococcus spp., Enterococcus spp. and Gram-positive bacilli, have been explored.
[Frontiers in Microbiology]
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