Nanoparticle Vaccines Based on the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and Heptad Repeat (HR) of SARS-CoV-2 Elicit Robust Protective Immune Responses

Scientists developed nanoparticle vaccines by covalently conjugating the self-assembled 24-mer ferritin to the receptor binding domain and/or heptad repeat subunits of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.
[Immunity]
Ma, X., Zou, F., Yu, F., Li, R., Yuan, Y., Zhang, Y., Zhang, X., Deng, J., Chen, T., Song, Z., Qiao, Y., Zhan, Y., Liu, J., Zhang, J., Zhang, X., Peng, Z., Li, Y., Lin, Y., Liang, L., … Zhang, H. (2020). Nanoparticle Vaccines Based on the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) and Heptad Repeat (HR) of SARS-CoV-2 Elicit Robust Protective Immune Responses. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.015 Cite
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Low Avidity CD4+ T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 in Unexposed Individuals and Humans with Severe COVID-19

Researchers utilized SARS-CoV-2-reactive CD4+ T cell enrichment to examine the antigen-avidity and clonality of these cells, as well as the relative contribution of common cold corona virus cross-reactivity.
[Immunity]
Bacher, P., Rosati, E., Esser, D., Martini, G. R., Saggau, C., Schiminsky, E., Dargvainiene, J., Schöder, I., Wieters, I., Khodamoradi, Y., Eberhardt, F., Vehreschild, M. J. G. T., Neb, H., Sonntagbauer, M., Conrad, C., Tran, F., Rosenstiel, P., Markewitz, R., Wandinger, K.-P., … Scheffold, A. (2020). Low avidity CD4+ T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in unexposed individuals and humans with severe COVID-19. Immunity, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2020.11.016 Cite
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Survival of the Weakest in Non-Transitive Asymmetric Interactions among Strains of E. coli

Scientists designed a simple microbial community with three strains of E. coli that cyclically interacted through (i) the inhibition of protein production, (ii) the digestion of genomic DNA, and (iii) the disruption of the cell membrane.
[Nature Communications]
Liao, M. J., Miano, A., Nguyen, C. B., Chao, L., & Hasty, J. (2020). Survival of the weakest in non-transitive asymmetric interactions among strains of E. coli. Nature Communications, 11(1), 6055. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19963-8 Cite
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Olfactory Transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 Invasion as a Port of Central Nervous System Entry in Individuals with COVID-19

SARS-CoV-2 could enter the nervous system by crossing the neural–mucosal interface in olfactory mucosa, exploiting the close vicinity of olfactory mucosal, endothelial and nervous tissue, including delicate olfactory and sensory nerve endings.
[Nature Neuroscience]
Meinhardt, J., Radke, J., Dittmayer, C., Franz, J., Thomas, C., Mothes, R., Laue, M., Schneider, J., Brünink, S., Greuel, S., Lehmann, M., Hassan, O., Aschman, T., Schumann, E., Chua, R. L., Conrad, C., Eils, R., Stenzel, W., Windgassen, M., … Heppner, F. L. (2020). Olfactory transmucosal SARS-CoV-2 invasion as a port of central nervous system entry in individuals with COVID-19. Nature Neuroscience, 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41593-020-00758-5 Cite
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SAB Biotherapeutics Awarded $57.5M from BARDA and US Department of Defense for Manufacturing of SAB-185 for the Treatment of COVID-19

SAB Biotherapeutics announced that the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority and the Department of Defense Joint Program Executive Office for Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear Defense have awarded SAB $57.5 million in expanded scope for its DiversitAb™ Rapid Response Antibody Program contract for the manufacturing of SAB-185, the company’s clinical stage therapeutic candidate for COVID-19.
[SAB Biotherapeutics]
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The Central Role of the Nasal Microenvironment in the Transmission, Modulation, and Clinical Progression of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Scientists review the latest molecular and cellular findings on the mucosal response to SARS-CoV-2 in the nasal cavity and in Nasopharynx-Associated Lymphoid Tissue, and to analyze its impact in the subsequent course of COVID-19.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Gallo, O., Locatello, L. G., Mazzoni, A., Novelli, L., & Annunziato, F. (2020). The central role of the nasal microenvironment in the transmission, modulation, and clinical progression of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mucosal Immunology, 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-020-00359-2 Cite
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Commensal-Driven Immune Zonation of the Liver Promotes Host Defence

Investigators used quantitative multiplex imaging, genetic perturbations, transcriptomics, infection-based assays and mathematical modeling to reassess the relationship between the localization of immune cells in the liver and host protection.
[Nature]
Gola, A., Dorrington, M. G., Speranza, E., Sala, C., Shih, R. M., Radtke, A. J., Wong, H. S., Baptista, A. P., Hernandez, J. M., Castellani, G., Fraser, I. D. C., & Germain, R. N. (2020). Commensal-driven immune zonation of the liver promotes host defence. Nature, 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2977-2 Cite
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The Gut Microbiota Is Associated with Immune Cell Dynamics in Humans

Researchers study hundreds of hospitalized—and closely monitored—patients with cancer receiving haematopoietic cell transplantation as they recover from chemotherapy and stem-cell engraftment.
[Nature]
Schluter, J., Peled, J. U., Taylor, B. P., Markey, K. A., Smith, M., Taur, Y., Niehus, R., Staffas, A., Dai, A., Fontana, E., Amoretti, L. A., Wright, R. J., Morjaria, S., Fenelus, M., Pessin, M. S., Chao, N. J., Lew, M., Bohannon, L., Bush, A., … Xavier, J. B. (2020). The gut microbiota is associated with immune cell dynamics in humans. Nature, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-020-2971-8 Cite
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City of Hope Initiates Phase I Clinical Trial to Test Its First SARS-CoV-2 Investigational Vaccine

City of Hope has initiated a Phase I clinical trial that will test one of its investigational SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in healthy volunteers between the ages of 18 and 55 who have not had COVID-19.
[City of Hope]
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Rapid Identification of a Human Antibody with High Prophylactic and Therapeutic Efficacy in Three Animal Models of SARS-CoV-2 Infection

Scientists identified panels of fully human monoclonal antibodies from large phage-displayed Fab, scFv, and VH libraries by panning against the receptor binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein.
[Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America]
Li, W., Chen, C., Drelich, A., Martinez, D. R., Gralinski, L. E., Sun, Z., Schäfer, A., Kulkarni, S. S., Liu, X., Leist, S. R., Zhelev, D. V., Zhang, L., Kim, Y.-J., Peterson, E. C., Conard, A., Mellors, J. W., Tseng, C.-T. K., Falzarano, D., Baric, R. S., & Dimitrov, D. S. (2020). Rapid identification of a human antibody with high prophylactic and therapeutic efficacy in three animal models of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 117(47), 29832–29838. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2010197117 Cite
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Broadly Reactive Human CD4+ T Cells Against Enterobacteriaceae Are Found in the Naïve Repertoire and Are Clonally Expanded in the Memory Repertoire

Enterobacteriaceae broadly reactive T cells were prominent among in vitro primed T cells. These data point to the existence of immunodominant T cell epitopes shared among different Enterobacteriaceae species and targeted byT cells that were readily found in the pre‐immune repertoire and were clonally expanded in the memory repertoire.
[European Journal of Immunology]
Broadly reactive human CD4+ T cells against Enterobacteriaceae are found in the naïve repertoire and are clonally expanded in the memory repertoire - Cassotta - - European Journal of Immunology - Wiley Online Library. (n.d.). Retrieved November 26, 2020, from https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/eji.202048630#.X76zHTHFStI.twitter Cite
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