CD38+ CD27 TNF-α+ on Mtb-Specific CD4+ T Is a Robust Biomarker for Tuberculosis Diagnosis

Scientists queried the diagnostic ability of phenotypic markers on Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific cytokine-producing immune cell subsets for identifying active tuberculosis.
[Clinical Infectious Diseases]
Acharya, M. P., Pradeep, S. P., Murthy, V. S., Chikkannaiah, P., Kambar, V., Narayanashetty, S., Burugina Nagaraja, S., Niveditha, D., Yoganand, R., & Satchidanandam, V. (2021). CD38 +CD27 –TNF-α + on Mtb-specific CD4 + T is a robust biomarker for tuberculosis diagnosis. Clinical Infectious Diseases, ciab144. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/ciab144 Cite
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No Higher Infectivity but Immune Escape of SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 Variants

Experiments with 18 pseudotyped viruses showed that the 501Y.V2 variants do not confer increased infectivity in multiple cell types except for murine ACE2-overexpressing cells.
[Cell]
Li, Q., Nie, J., Wu, J., Zhang, L., Ding, R., Wang, H., Zhang, Y., Li, T., Liu, S., Zhang, M., Zhao, C., Liu, H., Nie, L., Qin, H., Wang, M., Lu, Q., Li, X., Liu, J., Liang, H., … Wang, Y. (2021). No higher infectivity but immune escape of SARS-CoV-2 501Y.V2 variants. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.042 Cite
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The Lytic Polysaccharide Monooxygenase CbpD Promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence in Systemic Infection

Scientists showed that CbpD, the lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, was a chitin-oxidizing virulence factor that promoted survival of the bacterium in human blood.
[Nature Communications]
Askarian, F., Uchiyama, S., Masson, H., Sørensen, H. V., Golten, O., Bunæs, A. C., Mekasha, S., Røhr, Å. K., Kommedal, E., Ludviksen, J. A., Arntzen, M. Ø., Schmidt, B., Zurich, R. H., van Sorge, N. M., Eijsink, V. G. H., Krengel, U., Mollnes, T. E., Lewis, N. E., Nizet, V., & Vaaje-Kolstad, G. (2021). The lytic polysaccharide monooxygenase CbpD promotes Pseudomonas aeruginosa virulence in systemic infection. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1230. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21473-0 Cite
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A Multivalent T-Antigen-Based Vaccine for Group A Streptococcus

Scientists generated a multivalent vaccine called TeeVax1, a recombinant protein that consists of a fusion of six T-antigen domains.
[Scientific Reports]
Loh, J. M. S., Rivera-Hernandez, T., McGregor, R., Khemlani, A. H. J., Tay, M. L., Cork, A. J., M. Raynes, J., Moreland, N. J., Walker, M. J., & Proft, T. (2021). A multivalent T-antigen-based vaccine for Group A Streptococcus. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 4353. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83673-4 Cite
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Biological Activity-Based Modeling Identifies Antiviral Leads against SARS-CoV-2

Scientists report a biological activity-based modeling approach, in which compound activity profiles established across multiple assays were used as signatures to predict compound activity in other assays or against a new target.
[Nature Biotechnology]
Huang, R., Xu, M., Zhu, H., Chen, C. Z., Zhu, W., Lee, E. M., He, S., Zhang, L., Zhao, J., Shamim, K., Bougie, D., Huang, W., Xia, M., Hall, M. D., Lo, D., Simeonov, A., Austin, C. P., Qiu, X., Tang, H., & Zheng, W. (2021). Biological activity-based modeling identifies antiviral leads against SARS-CoV-2. Nature Biotechnology, 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-021-00839-1 Cite
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A Trans-Complementation System for SARS-CoV-2 Recapitulates Authentic Viral Replication without Virulence

Researchers report a trans-complementation system that produces single-round infectious SARS-CoV-2 that recapitulates authentic viral replication.
[Cell]
Zhang, X., Liu, Y., Liu, J., Bailey, A. L., Plante, K. S., Plante, J. A., Zou, J., Xia, H., Bopp, N. E., Aguilar, P. V., Ren, P., Menachery, V. D., Diamond, M. S., Weaver, S. C., Xie, X., & Shi, P.-Y. (2021). A trans-complementation system for SARS-CoV-2 recapitulates authentic viral replication without virulence. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.044 Cite
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Evidence of Escape of SARS-CoV-2 Variant B.1.351 from Natural and Vaccine Induced Sera

The receptor binding domain mutations provide tighter ACE2 binding and widespread escape from monoclonal antibody neutralization largely driven by E484K although K417N and N501Y act together against some important antibody classes.
[Cell]
Zhou, D., Dejnirattisai, W., Supasa, P., Liu, C., Mentzer, A. J., Ginn, H. M., Zhao, Y., Duyvesteyn, H. M. E., Tuekprakhon, A., Nutalai, R., Wang, B., Paesen, G. C., Lopez-Camacho, C., Slon-Campos, J., Hallis, B., Coombes, N., Bewley, K., Charlton, S., Walter, T. S., … Screaton, G. R. (2021). Evidence of escape of SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 from natural and vaccine induced sera. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.037 Cite
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Extremely Potent Human Monoclonal Antibodies from COVID-19 Convalescent Patients

By single cell sorting 4,277 SARS-CoV-2 spike protein specific memory B cells from 14 COVID-19 survivors, 453 neutralizing antibodies were identified.
[Cell]
Andreano, E., Nicastri, E., Paciello, I., Pileri, P., Manganaro, N., Piccini, G., Manenti, A., Pantano, E., Kabanova, A., Troisi, M., Vacca, F., Cardamone, D., Santi, C. D., Torres, J. L., Ozorowski, G., Benincasa, L., Jang, H., Genova, C. D., Depau, L., … Rappuoli, R. (2021). Extremely potent human monoclonal antibodies from COVID-19 convalescent patients. Cell, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cell.2021.02.035 Cite
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Endogenous Complement Human Serum Bactericidal Assay (Enc-hSBA) for Vaccine Effectiveness Assessments against Meningococcal Serogroup B

Scientists report the qualification/validation of an alternative qualitative human serum bactericidal activity assay (hSBA) which used endogenous complement present in the vaccinee’s serum.
[npj Vaccines]
Kleinschmidt, A., Vadivelu, K., Serino, L., Neidig, N., & de Wergifosse, B. (2021). Endogenous complement human serum bactericidal assay (enc-hSBA) for vaccine effectiveness assessments against meningococcal serogroup B. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-021-00286-8 Cite
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Florica Therapeutics, Inc. Awarded Competitive Grant from the National Science Foundation to Study Brain-Immune Axis in COVID-19

Florica Therapeutics, Inc. has been awarded a National Science Foundation Small Business Innovation Research grant for $255,678 to work on the Hypothalamus Stem Cell Exosomes for Treatment of COVID-19 project.
[Florica Therapeutics, Inc. (Businesswire, Inc)]
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Epigraph Hemagglutinin Vaccine Induces Broad Cross-Reactive Immunity against Swine H3 Influenza Virus

In mice, epigraph vaccination leads to significant cross-reactive antibody and T-cell responses against a diverse panel of swH3 isolates.
[Nature Communications]
Bullard, B. L., Corder, B. N., DeBeauchamp, J., Rubrum, A., Korber, B., Webby, R. J., & Weaver, E. A. (2021). Epigraph hemagglutinin vaccine induces broad cross-reactive immunity against swine H3 influenza virus. Nature Communications, 12(1), 1203. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21508-6 Cite
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