Immunology of Infectious Disease News

Immunology of Infectious Disease News is an online resource dedicated to covering the latest research and developments in the field of infectious diseases.

Novel Immunomodulatory Properties of Adenosine Analogs Promote Their Antiviral Activity Against SARS-CoV-2

[EMBO Reports] In the case of remdesivir, investigators showed that immunomodulatory properties are due to its metabolite, GS-441524, acting as an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist. Their findings supported a new rationale for the design of next-generation antiviral agents with dual - immunomodulatory and intrinsic - antiviral properties.

In Vitro and In Vivo Inhibition of the Host TRPC4 Channel Attenuates Zika Virus Infection

[EMBO Molecular Medicine] Researchers investigated whether TRPCs might be involved in the pathogenesis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. They found that ZIKV infection increases TRPC4 expression in host cells via the interaction between the ZIKV-NS3 protein and CaMKII, enhancing TRPC4-mediated calcium influx.

A Novel Murine Model Mimicking Male Genital Neisseria Species Infection Using Neisseria musculi

[Biology of Reproduction] Scientists inoculated mice via the intrapenile route with N. musculi. THey assessed bacterial burden throughout the male reproductive tract, the systemic and tissue-specific immune response two weeks postinfection, and the effect of infection on sperm health.

Specific CD4+ T Cell Phenotypes Associate with Bacterial Control in People Who ‘Resist’ Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

[Nature Immunology] Researchers found that Mtb-specific T cells in resisters (RSTR) were clonally expanded, confirming the priming of adaptive immune responses following Mtb exposure. RSTR CD4+ T cells showed enrichment of TH17 and regulatory T cell-like functional programs compared to Mtb-specific T cells from individuals with latent Mtb infection.

Acquired Epidermodysplasia Verruciformis Syndrome in HIV-Infected Patients: A Systematic Review

[Archives of Dermatological Research] Congenital epidermodysplasia verruciformis is a Genodermatosis linked to different inheritance patterns and mutations of the EVER1/TMC6 and EVER2/TMC8 genes. There is an acquired form (AEV) associated with immunodeficiency states, including HIV infection; however, the literature about AEV is limited and imprecise.

Bird Flu Could Become a Human Pandemic. How Are Countries Preparing?

[Nature] As cases of avian influenza continue to rise in cattle in the United States, countries are preparing for the possibility that the virus could start spreading in people. Many nations are ramping up surveillance, as well as purchasing vaccines or developing new ones.

Microbiologist Wins Case Against University over Harassment during COVID

[Nature] A New Zealand court has ruled that the University of Auckland breached its obligations to protect high-profile microbiologist Siouxsie Wiles from the intense abuse and harassment she experienced while providing public information about the COVID-19 pandemic.

Influence of AAV Vector Tropism on Long-Term Expression and FC-γ Receptor Binding of an Antibody Targeting SARS-CoV-2

[Communications Biology] Scientists constructed adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding the human variable regions of the SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody, TRES6, fused to murine constant regions. An optimized vector construct was packaged in hepatotropic or myotropic AAV capsids and injected intravenously into syngeneic TRIANNI-mice.

Controlled Human Hookworm Infection Remodels Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells and Regulatory T Cells Towards Profiles Seen in Natural Infections in Endemic Areas

[Nature Communications] By leveraging controlled human infection models and high-dimensional immunophenotyping, researchers investigated the immune remodeling following infection with 50 Necator americanus L3 hookworm larvae in four naïve volunteers over two years of follow-up and compared the profiles with naturally infected populations in endemic areas.

Immune Dysfunction Prior to and During Vaccination in Multiple Myeloma: A Case Study Based on COVID-19

[Blood Cancer Journal] Using COVID-19 as a case study, scientists compared the immune response to vaccination based on 64,304 data points generated from the analysis of 1099 longitudinal samples. Multiple myeloma patients showed limited B-cell expansion linked to lower anti-RBD and anti-S antibody titers after the first two doses and booster.

Smoking and Vaping Alter Genes Related to Mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2 Susceptibility and Severity

[European Respiratory Journal] Evidence for the impact of smoking on COVID-19 is contradictory, and there is little research on vaping. Investigators provided greater clarity on mechanisms perturbed by tobacco cigarette, electronic cigarette and nicotine exposures that may impact the risks of infection and/or disease severity.

Influenza A Virus During Pregnancy Disrupts Maternal Intestinal Immunity and Fetal Cortical Development in a Dose- and Time-Dependent Manner

[Molecular Psychiatry] Researchers inoculated pregnant mice with two infectious doses of influenza A virus (IAV) and evaluated peak innate and adaptive immune responses in the dam and fetus. While respiratory IAV infection led to dose-dependent maternal colonic shortening and microbial dysregulation, there was no elevation in intestinal TH17 cells nor IL-17.

Immunology of Infectious Disease News was founded to keep the scientific community current with the latest developments in infectious disease research. We feature high-impact publications, news, jobs, and events focused on immune responses to and the development of treatments for infectious diseases such as COVID-19, HIV, hepatitis, tuberculosis, influenza, and malaria.