Vaccine Development for Emerging Infectious Diseases

The unprecedented scale and rapidity of dissemination of recent emerging infectious diseases pose new challenges for vaccine developers, regulators, health authorities and political constituencies.
[Nature Medicine]
Excler, J.-L., Saville, M., Berkley, S., & Kim, J. H. (2021). Vaccine development for emerging infectious diseases. Nature Medicine, 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-021-01301-0 Cite
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Lipid Nanoparticle Encapsulated Nucleoside-Modified mRNA Vaccines Elicit Polyfunctional HIV-1 Antibodies Comparable to Proteins in Nonhuman Primates

Researchers showed that mRNA-LNP immunization compared to protein immunization elicits either the same or superior magnitude and breadth of HIV-1 Env-specific polyfunctional antibodies.
[npj Vaccines]
Saunders, K. O., Pardi, N., Parks, R., Santra, S., Mu, Z., Sutherland, L., Scearce, R., Barr, M., Eaton, A., Hernandez, G., Goodman, D., Hogan, M. J., Tombacz, I., Gordon, D. N., Rountree, R. W., Wang, Y., Lewis, M. G., Pierson, T. C., Barbosa, C., … Haynes, B. F. (2021). Lipid nanoparticle encapsulated nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccines elicit polyfunctional HIV-1 antibodies comparable to proteins in nonhuman primates. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-021-00307-6 Cite
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A Highly Multiplexed Droplet Digital PCR Assay to Measure the Intact HIV-1 Proviral Reservoir

Scientists designed two triplex droplet digital PCR assays, each with two unique targets and one in common, and normalize the results to PCR-based T cell counts.
[Cell Reports Medicine]
Levy, C. N., Hughes, S. M., Roychoudhury, P., Reeves, D. B., Amstuz, C., Zhu, H., Huang, M.-L., Wei, Y., Bull, M. E., Cassidy, N. A. J., McClure, J., Frenkel, L. M., Stone, M., Bakkour, S., Wonderlich, E. R., Busch, M. P., Deeks, S. G., Schiffer, J. T., Coombs, R. W., … Hladik, F. (2021). A highly multiplexed droplet digital PCR assay to measure the intact HIV-1 proviral reservoir. Cell Reports Medicine, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.xcrm.2021.100243 Cite
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Neutrophil Subtypes Shape HIV-Specific CD8 T-cell Responses after Vaccinia Virus Infection

Scientists found that these neutrophil subtypes showed distinct migratory and motility patterns and different ability to interact with CD8 T cells in the spleen following vaccinia virus infection.
[npj Vaccines]
Di Pilato, M., Palomino-Segura, M., Mejías-Pérez, E., Gómez, C. E., Rubio-Ponce, A., D’Antuono, R., Pizzagalli, D. U., Pérez, P., Kfuri-Rubens, R., Benguría, A., Dopazo, A., Ballesteros, I., Sorzano, C. O. S., Hidalgo, A., Esteban, M., & Gonzalez, S. F. (2021). Neutrophil subtypes shape HIV-specific CD8 T-cell responses after vaccinia virus infection. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-021-00314-7 Cite
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Control of IFN-I Responses by the Aminopeptidase IRAP in Neonatal C57BL/6 Alveolar Macrophages during RSV Infection

Neonatal C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages mobilized very weakly the IFN-I pathway upon Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) infection in vitro and failed to restrain virus replication.
[Mucosal Immunology]
Drajac, C., Laubreton, D., Marquant, Q., Chottin, C., Ferret, C., Bouguyon, E., Schwartz-Cornil, I., Saveanu, L., Riffault, S., & Descamps, D. (2021). Control of IFN-I responses by the aminopeptidase IRAP in neonatal C57BL/6 alveolar macrophages during RSV infection. Mucosal Immunology, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41385-021-00402-w Cite
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AzurRx BioPharma Initiates Phase II Clinical Trial of Niclosamide for the Treatment of COVID-19 Gastrointestinal Infections

AzurRx BioPharma, Inc. announced that it has initiated its Phase II RESERVOIR clinical trial of a proprietary oral formulation of micronized niclosamide for the treatment of COVID-19 related gastrointestinal infections.
[AzurRx BioPharma, Inc.]
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AB Science Announces the Signing of an Exclusive Licensing Agreement with the University of Chicago to Conduct Research for the Prevention and Treatment of COVID-19

AB Science SA announced the signing of an exclusive licensing agreement for conducting research on the prevention and treatment of humans infected with nidoviruses, coronaviruses and picornaviruses.
[AB Science SA (Globe Newswire, Inc.)]
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SARS-CoV-2 Drives JAK1/2-Dependent Local Complement Hyperactivation

Scientists unexpectedly found that the complement system was one of the intracellular pathways most highly induced by SARS-CoV-2 infection in lung epithelial cells.
[Science Immunology]
Yan, B., Freiwald, T., Chauss, D., Wang, L., West, E., Mirabelli, C., Zhang, C. J., Nichols, E.-M., Malik, N., Gregory, R., Bantscheff, M., Ghidelli-Disse, S., Kolev, M., Frum, T., Spence, J. R., Sexton, J. Z., Alysandratos, K. D., Kotton, D. N., Pittaluga, S., … Kazemian, M. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 drives JAK1/2-dependent local complement hyperactivation. Science Immunology, 6(58). https://doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.abg0833 Cite
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Durability of Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and Other Respiratory Viruses

The authors summarize what is now known about adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and draw comparisons with immunity to other respiratory viruses, focusing on the longevity of protective responses.
[Trends in Microbiology]
Siggins, M. K., Thwaites, R. S., & Openshaw, P. J. M. (2021). Durability of immunity to SARS-CoV-2 and other respiratory viruses. Trends in Microbiology, 0(0). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2021.03.016 Cite
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Influence of the Microenvironment on Modulation of the Host Response by Typhoid Toxin

Researchers addressed the role of typhoid toxin in modulation of the host-microbial interaction in health and disease.
[Cell Reports]
Martin, O. C. B., Bergonzini, A., Chiloeches, M. L., Paparouna, E., Butter, D., Theodorou, S. D. P., Haykal, M. M., Boutet-Robinet, E., Tebaldi, T., Wakeham, A., Rhen, M., Gorgoulis, V. G., Mak, T., Pateras, I. S., & Frisan, T. (2021). Influence of the microenvironment on modulation of the host response by typhoid toxin. Cell Reports, 35(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.108931 Cite
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The Effect of Calcium and Magnesium on Activity, Immunogenicity, and Efficacy of a Recombinant N1/N2 Neuraminidase Vaccine

Despite the importance of immunity against neuraminidase (NA), NA content and immunogenicity are neglected in current influenza vaccines. To address this, a recombinant N1/N2 NA vaccine was developed.
[npj Vaccines]
Giurgea, L. T., Park, J.-K., Walters, K.-A., Scherler, K., Cervantes-Medina, A., Freeman, A., Rosas, L. A., Kash, J. C., Taubenberger, J. K., & Memoli, M. J. (2021). The effect of calcium and magnesium on activity, immunogenicity, and efficacy of a recombinant N1/N2 neuraminidase vaccine. Npj Vaccines, 6(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41541-021-00310-x Cite
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