PIWI-Interacting RNA in Cancer: Molecular Mechanisms and Possible Clinical Implications (Review)

The authors highlight the latest research progress made in the biological functions and regulation of PIWI‑interacting RNA in mammals, their involvement in various cancer forms and their potential clinical applications.
[Oncology Reports]
Yuan, C., Qin, H., Ponnusamy, M., Chen, Y., & Lin, Z. (2021). PIWI‑interacting RNA in cancer: Molecular mechanisms and possible clinical implications (Review). Oncology Reports, 46(3), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.3892/or.2021.8160 Cite
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AKT3-Mediated IWS1 Phosphorylation Promotes the Proliferation of EGFR-Mutant Lung Adenocarcinomas through Cell Cycle-Regulated U2AF2 RNA Splicing

Scientists showed that exon 2 inclusion in the U2AF2 mRNA is a cell cycle-dependent process that is regulated by LEDGF/SRSF1 splicing complexes, whose assembly was controlled by the IWS1 phosphorylation-dependent deposition of histone H3K36me3 marks in the body of target genes.
[Nature Communications]
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The Integrated Stress Response Is Tumorigenic and Constitutes a Therapeutic Liability in KRAS-Driven Lung Cancer

Researchers demonstrated that integrated stress response was pivotal in lung adenocarcinoma development, the most common histological type of lung cancer and a leading cause of cancer death worldwide.
[Nature Communications]
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IFITM Proteins Promote SARS-CoV-2 Infection and Are Targets for Virus Inhibition In Vitro

IFITM-derived peptides and targeting antibodies inhibited SARS-CoV-2 entry and replication in human lung cells, cardiomyocytes and gut organoids.
[Nature Communications]
Prelli Bozzo, C., Nchioua, R., Volcic, M., Koepke, L., Krüger, J., Schütz, D., Heller, S., Stürzel, C. M., Kmiec, D., Conzelmann, C., Müller, J., Zech, F., Braun, E., Groß, R., Wettstein, L., Weil, T., Weiß, J., Diofano, F., Rodríguez Alfonso, A. A., … Kirchhoff, F. (2021). IFITM proteins promote SARS-CoV-2 infection and are targets for virus inhibition in vitro. Nature Communications, 12(1), 4584. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-24817-y Cite
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Somatic Cell Hemoglobin Modulates Nitrogen Oxide Metabolism in the Human Airway Epithelium

Primary human airway epithelial cells, cultured at air–liquid interface, were obtained by clinical airway brushings or from explanted lungs. Human airway Hb mRNA data were from publically available databases; or from RT-PCR.
[Scientific Reports]
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Assessment of the Feasibility of Frozen Sections for the Detection of Spread through Air Spaces (STAS) in Pulmonary Adenocarcinoma

Researchers undertook a study to evaluate the reliability of spread through air spaces (STAS) assessment on frozen sections compared to permanent sections, as well as the associations among STAS, tumor grade, and recurrence-free survival after sublobar resection.
[Modern Pathology]
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Molecular Analysis of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Strains Isolated from Cystic Fibrosis Patients

Scientists applied a multiple-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis for an efficient genotyping of clinical P. aeruginosa strains isolated from cystic fibrosis patients and compared results with a TRS-PCR typing.
[Scientific Reports]
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Combination of Rapamycin and SAHA Enhanced Radiosensitization by Inducing Autophagy and Acetylation in NSCLC

Scientists investigated the effects of autophagy-inducing agent, Rapamycin, combined with the histone deacetylase inhibitor, Suberoylanilide Hydroxamic Acid, on the radiosensitivity of A549 and SK-MES-1 cells, and examined the combination effects on DNA damage repair, and determined the level of autophagy and acetylation in A549 cells.
[Aging]
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Cisplatin-Induced Hydroxyl Radicals Mediate Pro-Survival Autophagy in Human Lung Cancer H460 Cells

The role of autophagy in cisplatin resistance was indicated by a decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis in lung cancer H460 cells pre-incubated with wortmannin, an autophagy inhibitor, prior to treatment with 50 µM cisplatin for 24 hours.
[Biological Research]
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Targeting EGFR Exon 20 Insertions in Non–small Cell Lung Cancer: Recent Advances and Clinical Updates

The authors describe the molecular and clinicopathologic features of EGFR ins20 mutations and summarize recent data on emerging therapies for patients with this subtype of EGFR-mutant non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
[Cancer Discovery]
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Potential of Helper-Dependent Adenoviral Vectors in CRISPR-cas9-Mediated Lung Gene Therapy

Scientists discuss the status of the application of CRISPR/Cas9 in cystic fibrosis gene therapy, the existing challenges in the field, as well as new hurdles introduced by the presence of CRISPR/Cas9 in the lungs.
[Cell & Bioscience]
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