US Food and Drug Administration Approves New Formulation of Epclusa®, Expanding Pediatric Indication to Treat Children Ages 3 and Older with Chronic Hepatitis C

Gilead Sciences, Inc. announced that the US FDA has approved an expansion of the pediatric indication of Epclusa® for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) to now include children as young as 3 years of age, regardless of HCV genotype or liver disease severity.
[Gilead Sciences, Inc.]
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Feeding Diversified Protein Sources Exacerbates Hepatic Insulin Resistance via Increased Gut Microbial Branched-Chain Fatty Acids and mTORC1 Signaling in Obese Mice

Scientists showed that the branched-chain fatty acids, isobutyric and isovaleric acid, increased glucose production and activated mTORC1/S6K1 in hepatocytes.
[Nature Communications]
Choi, B. S.-Y., Daniel, N., Houde, V. P., Ouellette, A., Marcotte, B., Varin, T. V., Vors, C., Feutry, P., Ilkayeva, O., Ståhlman, M., St-Pierre, P., Bäckhed, F., Tremblay, A., White, P. J., & Marette, A. (2021). Feeding diversified protein sources exacerbates hepatic insulin resistance via increased gut microbial branched-chain fatty acids and mTORC1 signaling in obese mice. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3377. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23782-w Cite
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CDCA2 Protects against Oxidative Stress by Promoting BRCA1–NRF2 Signaling in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Researchers reported a new factor, CDCA2, in promoting hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. CDCA2 amplification was reported as an independent risk factor for the recurrence and survival of HCC patients, which was positively correlated with elevated level of alpha-fetoprotein, high histological grade, large tumor size, advanced TNM stage, and poor prognosis for HCC patients.
[Oncogene]
Wang, S., Cao, K., Liao, Y., Zhang, W., Zheng, J., Li, X., Huang, M., Zhong, Y., Hu, X., Chen, D., & Wang, Y. (2021). CDCA2 protects against oxidative stress by promoting BRCA1–NRF2 signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene, 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01855-w Cite
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CPSF4 Regulates circRNA Formation and microRNA Mediated Gene Silencing in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Scientists explored the role of CPSF4, for 3′ end formation and cleavage, in circRNA formation. Clinical research had shown that CPSF4 expression was upregulated in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and that high expression of CPSF4 was associated with poor prognosis in HCC patients.
[Oncogene]
Wang, X., Dong, J., Li, X., Cheng, Z., & Zhu, Q. (2021). CPSF4 regulates circRNA formation and microRNA mediated gene silencing in hepatocellular carcinoma. Oncogene, 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41388-021-01867-6 Cite
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CircC16orf62 Promotes Hepatocellular Carcinoma Progression through the miR-138-5p/PTK2/AKT Axis

Gain or loss-of-function studies indicated that the reduction of CircC16orf62 expression promoted the proliferation, invasion, and glycolysis of hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Zhang, S., Lu, Y., Jiang, H.-Y., Cheng, Z.-M., Wei, Z.-J., Wei, Y.-H., Liu, T., Xia, B.-J., Zhao, X.-Y., Huang, Y., Zou, X., Liu, R., & Zhou, S. (2021). CircC16orf62 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma progression through the miR-138-5p/PTK2/AKT axis. Cell Death & Disease, 12(6), 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03866-7 Cite
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Liver Fat Storage Is Controlled by HNF4α through Induction of Lipophagy and Is Reversed by a Potent HNF4α Agonist

Investigators reported the discovery of strong HNF4α agonists and their use to uncover a previously unknown pathway by which HNF4α controled the level of fat storage in the liver.
[Cell Death & Disease]
Lee, S.-H., Veeriah, V., & Levine, F. (2021). Liver fat storage is controlled by HNF4α through induction of lipophagy and is reversed by a potent HNF4α agonist. Cell Death & Disease, 12(6), 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41419-021-03862-x Cite
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Tumor Metabolism and Associated Serum Metabolites Define Prognostic Subtypes of Asian Hepatocellular Carcinoma

To determine serum metabolites that were relevant and representative of the tissue status, Scientists performed a two-step correlation analysis to first determine associations between metabolic genes and tissue metabolites, and second, between tissue metabolites and serum metabolites among 49 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients, which were then validated in 408 additional Asian HCC patients with mixed etiologies.
[Scientific Reports]
Pomyen, Y., Budhu, A., Chaisaingmongkol, J., Forgues, M., Dang, H., Ruchirawat, M., Mahidol, C., & Wang, X. W. (2021). Tumor metabolism and associated serum metabolites define prognostic subtypes of Asian hepatocellular carcinoma. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 12097. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91560-1 Cite
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Collagen VI as a Driver and Disease Biomarker in Human Fibrosis

In this review, the authors focus upon the microfibrillar collagen VI, which is present in the extracellular matrix of most tissues.
[FEBS Journal]
Williams, L., Layton, T., Yang, N., Feldmann, M., & Nanchahal, J. (n.d.). Collagen VI as a driver and disease biomarker in human fibrosis. The FEBS Journal, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1111/febs.16039 Cite
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Complement System in Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease

In this review, scientists present a compendium of studies evaluating the role of complement in human and murine models of associated liver disease.
[Immunology Letters]
Complement System in Alcohol-Associated Liver Disease. (2021). Immunology Letters. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.imlet.2021.05.007 Cite
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YAP/TAZ Suppress Drug Penetration into Hepatocellular Carcinoma via Stromal Activation

Multi-cellular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) organoid models were established which contained various types of stromal cells, such as hepatic stellate cells, fibroblasts, and endothelial cells together with HCC cells.
[Hepatology]
Cho, K., Ro, S. W., Lee, H. W., Moon, H., Han, S., Kim, H. R., Ahn, S. H., Park, J. Y., & Kim, D. Y. (n.d.). YAP/TAZ suppress drug penetration into hepatocellular carcinoma via stromal activation. Hepatology, n/a(n/a). https://doi.org/10.1002/hep.32000 Cite
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Generation of Functional Liver Organoids on Combining Hepatocytes and Cholangiocytes with Hepatobiliary Connections Ex Vivo

Scientists reported the generation of a hepatobiliary tubular organoid using mouse hepatocyte progenitors and cholangiocytes.
[Nature Communications]
Tanimizu, N., Ichinohe, N., Sasaki, Y., Itoh, T., Sudo, R., Yamaguchi, T., Katsuda, T., Ninomiya, T., Tokino, T., Ochiya, T., Miyajima, A., & Mitaka, T. (2021). Generation of functional liver organoids on combining hepatocytes and cholangiocytes with hepatobiliary connections ex vivo. Nature Communications, 12(1), 3390. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-23575-1 Cite
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